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大马士革
دمشق
大马士革在晚上

大马士革在晚上

昵称: 茉莉市

沙姆

国家 叙利亚
首都大马士革省
区域
•城市 105公里2 (41平方英里)
•城市 77公里2 (30平方英里)
海拔 680米(2,230英尺)
人口 (2009 est。)
•城市 1,711,000
时区 EET(UTC + 2)
•夏季(DST) 东部时间(UTC + 3)
区号 国家区号:963,城市区号:11
地名 大马士革
网站 大马士革省
资料来源:大马士革市区

大马士革 (有时称为 茉莉花城)是叙利亚的首都。它是叙利亚最大的城市,约有480万人居住在那里。

位置

大马士革距地中海约50英里,被反黎巴嫩山脉庇护。

地理

大马士革SPOT 1363

从Spot卫星看春季的大马士革

大马士革建在海平面以上的战略要地上,距地中海约80公里(50英里)内陆,由反黎巴嫩山脉庇护,由巴拉达河(Barada River)供水,并处于贸易路线之间的十字路口:连接埃及与小亚细亚的南北路线,以及连接黎巴嫩与幼发拉底河河谷的东西向横贯沙漠的路线。反黎巴嫩山脉标志着叙利亚和黎巴嫩之间的边界。该范围的峰值超过10,000英尺,阻止了地中海的降水,因此大马士革地区有时会遭受干旱的影响。但是,在古代,巴拉达河(Barada River)缓解了这种情况,巴拉达河起源于融雪融化的山streams。大马士革被古塔(Ghouta)灌溉农田所环绕,自古以来就种植了许多蔬菜,谷类水果。罗马叙利亚的地图显示,巴拉达河倒空了大马士革以东的某个大小的湖泊。今天,它被称为犹豫不决的湖泊Bahira Atayba,因为在多年的严重干旱中甚至不存在。

现代城市面积105公里2 (41平方英里),其中77公里2 (30平方英里)在城市,而贾巴尔·卡苏恩(Jabal Qasioun)则占据其余。

大马士革的巴拉达河(2009年4月)

巴拉达河水位稀少的时期之一,在大马士革市中心的四季酒店附近可以看到

大马士革旧城被城墙包围,位于巴拉达河的南岸,几乎是干(的(左3厘米(1英寸))。在东南,北部和东北部,它的郊区可以追溯到中世纪:西南的Midan,西北和西北的Sarouja和Imara。这些社区最初出现在通往城市的道路上,靠近宗教人物的坟墓。在19世纪,在Jabal Qasioun的山坡上发展起来的偏远村庄,俯瞰着城市,已经是al-Salihiyah社区的所在地,以Sheikh Muhi al-Din ibn Arabi的重要圣地为中心。这些新的社区最初是由来自奥斯曼帝国欧洲地区的库尔德士兵和穆斯林难民定居的,而该地区已被基督教统治。因此,他们被称为 阿尔·阿卡德 (库尔德人)穆哈吉林 (移民)。他们位于旧城区以北两到三公里(1.2-1.9英里)。

从19世纪后期开始,一个现代的行政和商业中心开始出现在老城区的西部,围绕着巴拉达(Barada),以该地区为中心 马尔吉 要么 草地马尔耶 很快就成为了最初的现代大马士革中央广场的名称,并附有市政厅。法院,邮局和火车站位于较高的地面上,稍微向南。即将在al-Marjeh和al-Salihiyah之间的道路上建造一个欧洲化的住宅区。新城市的商业和行政中心逐渐向北移至该地区。

大马士革英语地区

大马士革市

在20世纪,较新的郊区在巴拉达(Barada)北部发展,并在一定程度上向南部发展,入侵了古塔(Ghouta)绿洲。 1956-1957年,Yarmouk的新社区成为成千上万巴勒斯坦难民的第二故乡。城市规划者倾向于尽可能地保护古塔(Ghouta),在20世纪后期,一些主要的开发区位于北部,Mezzeh西部地区,最近沿着西北Dummar的Barada谷地及以后。东北Berze的山坡。通常在没有官方批准的情况下建造的较贫穷地区大部分已发展到主要城市的南部。

大马士革曾经被Ghouta地区(الغوطة al-ġūṭä),由巴拉达河浇水。斐济(Fejeh)泉水位于巴拉达(Barada)山谷以西,曾经为该市提供饮用水。随着城市住房和工业的迅速发展,古塔(Ghouta)绿洲的面积一直在缩小,而且几乎是干燥的。由于城市的交通,工业和污水,它也被污染了。

气候

大马士革的沙漠气候凉爽(体重),原因是反黎巴嫩山脉的雨影效应和盛行的洋流。夏天干燥炎热,湿度较低。冬天凉爽多雨。降雪很少。从10月到5月,年降雨量约为130毫米(5英寸)。

历史

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尽早解决

大马士革郊区泰勒·拉玛德(Tell Ramad)的Carbon-14测年表明,该遗址可能自公元前七千年后半期(可能是公元前6300年左右)就被占领了。一直存在到公元前9000年,尽管直到第二个千禧年之前,大马士革的围墙内还没有大规模的定居点。

大马士革是公元前1720至1570年的希克索斯王国阿穆鲁古代省的一部分。埃及最早的一些记录来自公元前1350年的阿马纳(Amarna)字母,当时的大马士革( 迪马斯库)由国王Biryawaza统治。大马士革地区以及叙利亚其他地区成为约公元前1260年的战场,北部的赫梯人与南部的埃及人之间成为战场,最后在哈图图西里和拉美西斯二世之间签署了条约,前者移交给了大马士革地区至公元前1259年的拉美西斯二世。海洋民族的到来,大约在公元前1200年,标志着该地区青铜时代的结束,并带来了战争的新发展。大马士革只是这张照片的外围部分,主要影响了古代叙利亚较大的人口中心。然而,这些事件促进了大马士革成为一个新的有影响力的中心的发展,这个中心随着从青铜时代到铁器时代的转变而出现。

创世记14:15中提到大马士革是国王战争时期存在的。根据一世纪的犹太历史学家弗拉维乌斯·约瑟夫斯(Flavius Josephus)的第二十一卷 犹太人的古物,大马士革(与风湿性关节炎一起)由亚兰的儿子乌兹(Uz)创立。古物i。 7,约瑟夫斯报道:

大马士革的尼古拉(Nicolaus of Damascus)在其历史的第四本书中这样说:“亚伯拉罕是外国人,在大马士革作王,他从巴比伦上空带出一支军队,被称为迦勒底人的土地:但是,经过很长一段时间, ,他起来,与他的人民一起从那个国家被遣散,进入那片土地,当时称为迦南地,但现在是犹大地,这就是他的后代成为众人的时候;现在,亚伯拉罕的名字在大马士革国家中仍然享有盛誉;还有一个以他命名的村庄,即亚伯拉罕的住所。

亚兰大马士革

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大马士革和周围空间的带注释的视图。

大马士革直到公元前11世纪来自美索不达米亚的闪族人Aramaeans到来才被记载为重要城市。到公元前第一个千年开始时,几个亚拉姆王国就形成了,因为亚拉姆人放弃了他们的游牧生活方式,并建立了联邦制的部落国家。这些王国之一就是以首都大马士革为中心的亚兰大马士革。无需战斗就进入这座城市的亚兰人将新家的名字改称为“ Dimashqu”。他们注意到仍未开发和人烟稀少的地区的农业潜力,他们通过修建运河和隧道来建立大马士革的水分配系统,从而使巴拉达河的效率最大化。后来,罗马人和Umayyads改进了同一个网络,至今仍是该城市旧城区供水系统的基础。 Aramaeans最初将大马士革变成了位于Beqaa谷地的Aram-Zobah松散的Aramaean部落联盟的前哨。

当亚兰·扎巴王权的申请者埃佐隆(Ezron)被剥夺联邦的王位后,埃兹隆(Ezron)在公元前965年以武力逃离贝卡(Beqaa)并占领了大马士革,从而在叙利亚南部占据了主导地位。埃兹隆推翻了该市的部落州长,并建立了阿拉姆-大马士革的独立实体。随着这个新国家向南扩展,它阻止了以色列王国向北扩散,并且两个王国不久就发生冲突,因为这两个王国都试图控制东部的贸易霸权。在埃兹隆(Ezron)的孙子本·哈达(Ben-Hadad I)(公元前880-841年)和他的继任者哈扎尔(Hazael)的领导下,大马士革吞并了巴山(现代的豪兰地区),并与以色列进行了攻势。这场冲突一直持续到公元前8世纪初,当时本·哈达德二世(Ben-Hadad II)在不成功地围攻撒玛利亚之后被以色列俘虏。结果,他授予了以色列在大马士革的贸易权。

达成阿拉姆-大马士革与以色列之间条约的另一个可能原因是新亚述帝国试图扩大到地中海沿岸的共同威胁。公元前853年,大马士革国王哈达德泽领导了一个黎凡特联盟,其中包括来自北部阿拉姆-哈马特王国的部队和以色列国王阿哈卜所提供的部队,在加尔卡尔之战中抗击新亚述军队。亚兰大马士革取得胜利,暂时阻止亚述人入侵叙利亚。但是,在哈达泽泽被其继任者哈扎尔杀死之后,黎凡特同盟崩溃了。亚兰-大马士革试图入侵以色列,但因新的亚述入侵而被打断。哈泽尔下令撤退到大马士革的围墙部分,而亚述人掠夺了王国的其余部分。由于无法进入这座城市,他们宣布在Hauran和Beqa'a山谷中处于至高无上的地位。

到了公元前8世纪,大马士革几乎被亚述人吞没,进入了黑暗时代。尽管如此,它仍然是近东的经济和文化中心以及Arameaen的抵抗力量。 727年,该市发生了起义,但被亚述军队镇压。亚述共和国在整个叙利亚进行大规模镇压叛乱运动之后,大马士革完全被他们的统治所征服。这样做的积极作用是城市的稳定,并得益于与阿拉伯的香料和香火贸易。但是,到了公元前609-605年,亚述权威逐渐减少,叙利亚-巴勒斯坦陷入了法老尼古河二世埃及的轨道。在572年,新巴比伦人征服了整个叙利亚,但是大巴士革在巴比伦的统治地位却相对未知。

希腊罗马时期

大马士革的木星庙

Al-Hamidiyah Souq入口处的木星神庙的废墟

大马士革Bab Sharqi Street

圣经街被称为大马士革直路

大马士革被亚历山大大帝征服。亚历山大在公元前323年去世后,大马士革成为塞琉古和托勒密帝国之间斗争的场所。这座城市的控制权经常从一个帝国转移到另一个帝国。亚历山大将军之一的塞琉古斯一世·尼卡托(Seleucus I Nicator)使安提阿(Antioch)成为他庞大帝国的首都,这导致大马士革的重要性与北部拉塔基亚(Latakia)等塞琉古新城市相比有所下降。后来,德米特里三世(Demetrius III Philopator)根据希腊的河马体系重建了这座城市,并更名为“德米特里阿塔斯(Demetrias)”。

公元前64年,罗马将军庞培将吞并了叙利亚西部。罗马人占领了大马士革,随后将其并入了十个城市(称为十卡波利斯)的城市联盟,它们自己并入叙利亚省并获得自治。

庞培征服该地区后,大马士革市完全由罗马人重新设计。时至今日,大马士革旧城仍保留着罗马城市的矩形形状,其主要轴线有两个:Decumanus Maximus(东西方;今天被称为 通过直肠)和Cardo(南北),Decumanus的长度约为后者的两倍。罗马人建造了一座巨大的大门,该大门仍然在Decumanus Maximus的东端幸存。大门最初有三个拱门:中央拱门用于战车,而侧拱则用于行人。

公元23年,希律大帝被凯撒·奥古斯都(Caesar Augustus)所统治,由Lysanias的儿子Zenodorus所控制,而一些学者认为希律也被授予了大马士革的控制权。大马士革的控制权在希律大帝死后重新归还叙利亚,或者是希律·菲利普(Herod Philip)在33/34年去世时给予叙利亚的部分土地。

一些学者认为,纳巴提亚的Aretas IV Philopatris在33/44的希律·菲利普去世和40 CE的Aretas去世之间,控制了大马士革,但是有充分的证据表明Aretas在37 CE之前控制了这座城市,并且有许多原因它不可能是公元37至40年间Caligula的礼物。实际上,所有这些理论并非源于新约之外的任何实际证据,而是源于“一定的理解2 Cor。11:32”,而实际上“既不是来自考古证据,世俗历史渊源,也不是来自新约圣经,都无法使纳巴托人拥有主权”在公元一世纪的大马士革上得到证实。”

大马士革在2世纪初成为大都市,并在222年升级为大马士革。 殖民地 塞普蒂米乌斯·西弗勒斯皇帝(Septimius Severus)在此期间 Pax Romana,大马士革和叙利亚的罗马省总体上开始繁荣。大马士革作为商队城市的重要性显而易见,来自阿拉伯南部,巴尔米拉,佩特拉的贸易路线以及来自中国的丝绸之路都汇聚在这里。这个城市满足了罗马人对东方奢侈品的需求。

罗马人的建筑几乎没有遗迹,但旧城区的城市规划确实产生了持久的影响。罗马建筑师将城市的希腊和阿拉曼基础融合在一起,并将它们融合成一个新的布局,约1500 x 750米(4,920 x 2,460英尺),被城墙包围。城墙包含七个门,但只有东门(巴布·沙尔奇)保留了罗马时期的建筑。罗马大马士革主要位于现代城市以下五米(16.4英尺)的深度。

巴布图马(Bab Tuma)旧城区是在罗马/拜占庭时代末期由东正教社区开发的。根据使徒行传,圣保罗和圣托马斯都住在那附近。罗马天主教历史学家还认为巴布·图马是约翰五世和格里高利三世等几位教皇的出生地。

在穆罕默德时代

穆罕默德与大马士革人民的第一次互动是在扎伊德·本·哈里斯塔(Hisma)远征队(哈里斯·本·阿比·希米尔·加沙尼)派遣大亚士革国王哈里斯·本·哈桑尼(Shiris bin Gahsanni)时,他与大马士革人民进行了第一次交往。穆罕默德在信中说:“和平跟随遵循真正指导的人。被告知我的宗教将在所有地方盛行。您应该接受伊斯兰教,而您所掌握的一切仍将属于您”

伊斯兰阿拉伯时代

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在哈里发·乌马尔统治期间,叙利亚的大部分乡村被拉希顿·哈里发征服,大马士革本身在9月至635年8月被阿拉伯穆斯林将军哈利德·本·瓦尔德(Khalid ibn al-Walid)征服。他的军队此前曾试图在634年4月占领这座城市,但没有成功。由于大马士革现在掌握在阿拉伯穆斯林手中,拜占庭人对失去近东最负盛名的城市感到震惊,因此决定撤回对它的控制。在赫拉克留斯皇帝的领导下,拜占庭人调动一支精于拉希敦的军队。他们在636年春季进军叙利亚南部,因此哈立德·本·沃利德的部队从大马士革撤离,为新的对抗做准备。八月份,这两个大国在雅尔穆克河上会合,在那里进行了一场重大战斗,以决定性的穆斯林胜利告终,巩固了后者在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦的统治。

在穆斯林统治这座城市的同时,大马士革的人口仍然大部分是基督教徒,即东正教徒和独行侠,其中麦加,麦地那和叙利亚沙漠的穆斯林社区日益壮大。分配给被选为伊斯兰叙利亚首都的总督是Mu'awiyaI。哈里发·阿里在661年去世后,Mu'awiya被选为不断发展的伊斯兰帝国的哈里发。由于他的家族Umayyads在该市拥有大量资产,并且由于与Hijaz以及该地区的基督教阿拉伯部落之间的传统经济和社会联系,Mu'awiya将大马士革确定为大马士革的首都。整个哈里发。随着哈里发·阿卜杜勒·马利克(Caliph Abd al-Malik)在685年的提升,引入了伊斯兰造币系统,哈里发各省的所有盈余收入都转交给了大马士革国库。阿拉伯语也被确立为官方语言,使该市的穆斯林少数民族在行政事务上比讲阿拉伯语的基督徒更具优势。必须指出的是,在大马士革被穆斯林征服的时候,大多数阿拉伯人要么是异教徒要么是基督徒。大马士革本身主要是阿拉伯语的阿拉伯人。

阿卜杜勒·马利克(Abd al-Malik)的继任者瓦利德(Al-Walid)于706年开始建造大马士革大清真寺(被称为Umayyad清真寺)。该遗址最初是圣约翰基督教大教堂,而穆斯林则保留了该建筑对施洗约翰的奉献精神。 。到715年,清真寺已建成。 Al-Walid于同年去世,首先由Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik继任,然后由Umar II继任,后者各自在724年的Hisham统治之前短暂统治。有了这些继承权,大马士革的地位逐渐提高由于苏莱曼选择拉姆拉(Ramla)作为他的住所,后来希沙姆(Hisham)选择了雷萨法(Resafa),削弱了他的力量。后者在743年被谋杀后,Umayyads的哈里发(当时从西班牙延伸到印度)由于大规模起义而瓦解。在744年的马克旺二世统治期间,帝国的首都被迁至北部Jazira地区的Harran。

乌玛亚德清真寺-国库圆顶211099

大马士革的金库在乌马耶德清真寺的圆顶

750年8月25日,阿拔斯王朝在伊拉克的扎布战役中击败了Umayyads,在抵抗不大的情况下征服了大马士革。随着阿拔斯王朝哈里发的先驱,大马士革被新的伊斯兰首都巴格达黯然失色。在阿拔斯王朝统治的头六个月内,叛乱开始在这座城市爆发,尽管它过于孤立和集中,无法构成可行的威胁。尽管如此,最后一位著名的Umayyads被处决,大马士革的传统官员被排斥在外,该市的将军被解雇。此后,Umayyad家庭公墓被亵渎,城墙被拆除,使大马士革沦为不重要的省级城镇。它在下一世纪的书面记录中几乎消失了,该市唯一的重大改进是阿巴斯(Abbasid)修建的库房圆顶,建于789年的Umayyad清真寺。811年,Umayyad王朝的遥远残余在大马士革进行了强烈起义,最终起义是放下。

阿巴斯国王任命的反对派土耳其总督艾哈迈德·本·图伦(Ahmad ibn Tulun)在878-79年从他的霸主手中征服了包括大马士革在内的叙利亚。为了尊重先前的Umayyad统治者,他在穆阿维耶(Mu'awiya)市墓地上竖起了一座神社。大马士革的图卢尼德统治很短暂,一直持续到906年,之后被什叶派伊斯兰教徒信奉的Qarmatian取代。由于无法控制所占领的大量土地,加尔马人从大马士革撤出,新的朝代伊克西迪德控制了这座城市。他们保持了大马士革从阿勒颇的阿拉伯哈姆尼德王朝和巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的独立直到967年。该市经历了一段不稳定时期,随后是968年的Qarmatian袭击,970年的拜占庭袭击,以及法蒂米德人的压力越来越大在南部,在北部的Hamdanids。

什叶派武装分子(Shia Fatimids)于970年获得控制,激怒了他们与该市经常起义的逊尼派阿拉伯人之间的敌对行动。五年后,阿尔普塔金(Alptakin)的一名土耳其人赶出法蒂玛(Fatimids),并通过外交手段阻止了拜占庭人试图吞并这座城市。然而,到了977年,哈里发·阿齐兹(Caliph al-Aziz)领导下的法蒂玛人(Fatimids)夺回了对该城市的控制权,并驯服了逊尼派异议人士。阿拉伯地理学家al-Muqaddasi于985年访问了大马士革,并指出该城市的建筑和基础设施“宏伟”,但生活条件十分恶劣。在阿齐兹(Al-Aziz)统治下,该市经历了短暂的稳定,直到哈基姆(996-1021)统治结束。 998年,数百名大马士革领导人被捕并处决,以煽动罪名。哈基姆神秘失踪三年后,叙利亚南部的阿拉伯部落结成同盟,发动大规模反叛法蒂米德人的行动,但在1029年被法蒂米德土耳其总督叙利亚和巴勒斯坦安努什塔金·杜兹巴里镇压死。胜利使后者掌握了叙利亚,使他的法蒂玛德王(Fatimid)霸主不悦,但赢得了大马士革公民的钦佩。法蒂玛(Fatimid)当局将他流放到阿勒颇(Aleppo),并于1041年去世。从那一天到1063年,没有关于这座城市历史的记录。到那时,大马士革没有市政府,经济萎靡不振,人口大大减少。

Seljuq和Ayyubid规则

大马士革圆顶

Nur ad-Din陵墓的圆顶

随着11世纪后期塞尔柱克突厥人的到来,大马士革再次成为独立国家的首都。它由阿布·萨伊德·泰姬陵(Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I)统治,始于1079年,他的儿子阿布·纳斯尔·杜卡(Abu Nasr Duqaq)于1095年继位。塞尔柱克人在大马士革建立了法院,并有系统地扭转了什叶派在该市的统治。该市还通过资助宗教机构的私人捐赠扩大了宗教生活(马达拉斯)和医院(Maristans)。大马士革很快成为穆斯林世界传播伊斯兰思想的最重要中心之一。杜卡克(Duqaq)于1104年去世后,他的导师(阿塔贝格),陶格金(Toghtekin)接管了大马士革和塞尔柱克王朝的Burid家族。在杜卡克(Duqaq)和托格特金(Toghtekin)的领导下,大马士革经历了稳定,地位提高和在贸易中恢复作用。此外,该市逊尼派多数派成员成为更大的逊尼派框架的一部分,该框架由各个突厥王朝有效地管理,而这些突厥王朝又受设在巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的道德权威管辖。

大马士革的统治者全神贯注于阿勒颇和迪亚巴克尔的塞尔柱人,而十字军则在1097年到达黎凡特,征服了耶路撒冷,黎巴嫩山和巴勒斯坦。杜卡克似乎对十字军的统治感到满意,以此作为他的统治权与埃及法蒂玛·哈里发特之间的缓冲。然而,陶格金(Toghtekin)将西方入侵者视为对大马士革的可行威胁,当时大马士革名义上包括霍姆斯,贝卡谷,豪兰和戈兰高地。在摩苏尔的沙拉夫·丁·毛杜德的军事支持下,托格特金设法制止了在戈兰和豪兰的十字军袭击。毛杜德(Mawdud)于1109年在Umayyad清真寺被暗杀,剥夺了大马士革北部穆斯林的支持,并迫使托格金(Toghtekin)同意在1110年与十字军休战。

图格金(Tughtakin)在1128年去世后,他的儿子泰姬陵(Taj al-Din Buri)成为大马士革的名义统治者。巧合的是,摩苏尔的塞尔柱克王子伊马德·丁·曾吉(Imad al-Din Zengi)掌权了阿勒颇,并从阿拔斯王朝获得了将他的权力扩展到大马士革的授权。 1129年,该市约有6000名伊斯玛里穆斯林与他们的领导人一起被杀。谣言激怒了逊尼派逊尼派,指控伊斯玛里斯控制了巴尼亚斯的战略要塞,伊斯玛里斯策划了一个阴谋,以协助十字军占领大马士革以换取对提尔的控制。大屠杀后不久,十字军的目的是利用不稳定的局势,并向将近60,000名部队的大马士革发动进攻。但是,武里与Zengi结盟,并设法阻止他们的军队到达这座城市。 1132年,布里被伊斯玛利特工暗杀;他的儿子沙姆斯·穆尔克·伊斯玛伊(Shams al-Mulk Isma'il)实行专制统治,直到1135年他的母亲萨夫瓦特·穆尔克·祖穆鲁德(Safwat al-Mulk Zumurrud)秘密命令将其谋杀为止。 Isma'il的兄弟Shihab al-Din Mahmud取代了他。同时,曾吉(Zengi)打算将大马士革置于他的控制之下,于1138年与萨夫瓦特·穆尔克(Safwat al-Mulk)结婚。马哈茂德的统治于1139年结束,后因其家人不明原因杀害他。 Mu'in al-Din Unur,他的 马穆鲁克 (“奴隶士兵”)夺取了该市的有效权力,促使Zengi在萨夫瓦特·穆尔克(Safwat al-Mulk)的支持下,于同年围攻大马士革。作为回应,大马士革与耶路撒冷的十字军王国结盟,以抵抗Zengi的部队。因此,Zengi撤出了军队,并集中力量打击叙利亚北部。

1144年,Zengi征服了十字军要塞Edessa,并在1148年导致了欧洲的一次新十字军东征。与此同时,Zengi被暗杀,他的领土被分给了他的两个儿子,其中一个儿子是阿勒颇的酋长Nur ad-Din。与大马士革结盟。欧洲烈士到达时,他们和耶路撒冷贵族同意进攻大马士革。然而,他们的围困完全失败了。当这座城市似乎濒临崩溃时,十字军突然向墙的另一部分移动,并被赶回。到1154年,大马士革已完全由Nur ad-Din控制。

1164年,耶路撒冷国王阿玛里克(Amalric)入侵埃及法蒂玛(Fatimid)埃及,后者请求努尔·丁(Nur ad-Din)的帮助。 Nur ad-Din派遣了将军Shirkuh,1166年,Amalric在al-Babein战役中被击败。 Shirkuh于1169年去世时,他的侄子优素福(Yusuf)(后来称为萨拉丁)继位,他击败了十字军与拜占庭的联合围攻达米埃塔。萨拉丁最终推翻了法蒂玛王朝的哈里发,并确立了自己为埃及苏丹的地位。他还开始维护自己从努尔·阿丁(Nur ad-Din)的独立性,随着阿马尔里克(Amalric)和努尔·阿丁(Nur ad-Din)的去世,他处于有利位置,开始对大马士革和努尔·阿丁(Nur ad-Din)的其他叙利亚财产施加控制权。 1177年,萨拉丁在蒙吉萨德战役中被十字军击败,尽管他在数量上具有优势。萨拉丁在1183年还包围了喀拉克,但被迫撤离。他最终于1187年全面入侵耶路撒冷,并在7月的哈丁战役中歼灭了十字军。英亩很快就落入萨拉丁,耶路撒冷本身在十月被占领。这些事件震惊了欧洲,导致1189年的第三次十字军东征,由英格兰的理查德一世,法国的菲利普二世和神圣的罗马皇帝腓特烈一世率领,尽管最后一次淹没在途中。

幸存的十字军,再加上来自欧洲的新来者,对阿克进行了长期的围困,持续到1191年。在夺回英亩之后,理查德在1191年的阿苏夫战役和1192年的贾法战役中击败了萨拉丁,并恢复了大部分基督徒的海岸,但无法收回耶路撒冷或该国的任何内陆领土。 1192年,《拉姆拉条约》(Tramla Treaty)和平结束了十字军东征。萨拉丁允许朝圣者前往耶路撒冷朝圣,使十字军得以履行誓言,然后他们全部返回家园。本土的十字军男爵开始从英亩和其他沿海城市重建王国。

萨拉丁于1193年去世,大马士革和开罗的不同阿育吠陀苏丹统治者之间经常发生冲突。大马士革在1193年至1201年,1218年至1238年,1239年至1245年以及1250年至1260年之间是独立的阿育吠陀统治者的首都。在其他时候,它是由埃及的阿育吠陀统治者统治的。大马士革(丝绸之路的西端之一)可以买到带图案的拜占庭和中国丝绸,使英文为“锦缎”。

马穆鲁克时期

阿尤布(Ayyubid)统治(和独立)随着蒙古在1260年入侵叙利亚而终结,并且在同年蒙古在艾因·贾鲁特(Ain Jalut)击败后,大马士革成为了蒙古统治下从埃及统治的马穆鲁克帝国的省会。 1348年至1349年的黑死病杀死了该市一半的人口。

1400年,图尔克-蒙古征服者帖木尔(Timur)围困了大马士革。马穆鲁克苏丹派开罗派遣了一名代表,其中包括与伊本·哈尔敦(Ibn Khaldun)进行谈判的伊本·哈尔登(Ibn Khaldun),但撤离后他将这座城市解雇了。 Umayyad清真寺被烧毁,男人和女人被奴役。该市大量工匠被带到撒马尔罕的帖木儿首都。这些人是幸运的公民:许多人被屠杀,他们的头堆积在墙东北角外的一块土地上,那里的城市广场仍以这个名字命名 Burj al-ru'us,原为“元首之塔”。

重建后,大马士革继续充当马穆鲁克省首府,直到1516年。

奥斯曼帝国统治

Takiyyaas-Süleimaniyya清真寺02

Al-Hamidiyah Souq 02

1516年初,奥斯曼帝国土耳其人对马穆鲁克人和波斯萨法维德人结盟的危险提起警惕,开始了对马穆鲁克苏丹国的征服运动。 9月21日,大马士革的马穆鲁克(Mamluk)州长逃离这座城市,10月2日,以塞利姆一世的名义宣告了Umayyad清真寺的khutba。第二天,胜利的苏丹进入该城市,住了三个月。 12月15日,他乘Bab al-Jabiya离开大马士革,打算征服埃及。这座城市似乎几乎没有什么变化:一支军队只是替换了另一支。然而,苏丹在1517年10月返回时,下令在萨利希耶的谢赫·穆希·丁丁·伊本·阿拉比神社建造一座清真寺,tekkiye和陵墓。这是大马士革首个伟大的奥斯曼帝国纪念碑。

除1832至1840年埃及易卜拉欣·帕夏(Ibrahim Pasha)的短暂占领外,奥斯曼帝国还保留了400年。由于大麦加朝圣者大麦加朝圣者大篷车之一作为出发点的重要性,大马士革受到了更多的关注by the Porte than its size might have warranted—for most of this period, Aleppo was more populous and commercially more important. In 1560 the Tekkiye al-Sulaimaniyah, a mosque and khan for pilgrims on the road to Mecca, was completed to a design by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, and soon afterwards a madrasa was built adjoining it.

Under Ottoman rule, Christians and Jews were considered dhimmis and were allowed to practice their religious precepts. The Damascus affair that took place in 1840 was an incident in which the accusation of ritual murder was brought against members of the Jewish community of Damascus. In addition the massacre of Christians in 1860 was also one of the most notorious incidents of these centuries, when fighting between Druze and Maronites in Mount Lebanon spilled over into the city. Several thousand Christians were killed, with many more being saved through the intervention of the Algerian exile Abd al-Qadir and his soldiers (three days after the massacre started), who brought them to safety in Abd al-Qadir's residence and the citadel. The Christian quarter of the old city (mostly inhabited by Catholics), including a number of churches, was burnt down. The Christian inhabitants of the notoriously poor and refractory Midan district outside the walls (mostly Orthodox) were, however, protected by their Muslim neighbours.

American Missionary E.C. Miller records that in 1867 the population of the city was 'about' 140,000, of whom 30,000 were Christians, 10,000 Jews and 100,000 'Mohammedans' with fewer than 100 Protestant Christians.

Modern

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The Turkish Hospital in Damascus on 1 October 1918, shortly after the entry of the Australian 4th Light Horse Regiment

Damas en flamme

Damascus in flames as a result of the French air raid on 18 October 1925

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The historical al-Merjeh square

In the early years of the 20th century, nationalist sentiment in Damascus, initially cultural in its interest, began to take a political colouring, largely in reaction to the turkicisation programme of the Committee of Union and Progress government established in Istanbul in 1908. The hanging of a number of patriotic intellectuals by Jamal Pasha, governor of Damascus, in Beirut and Damascus in 1915 and 1916 further stoked nationalist feeling, and in 1918, as the forces of the Arab Revolt and the British Imperial forces approached, residents fired on the retreating Turkish troops.

On 1 October 1918, T. E. Lawrence entered Damascus, the third arrival of the day, the first being the Australian 3rd Light Horse Brigade, led by Major A.C.N. 'Harry' Olden. Two days later, 3 October 1918, the forces of the Arab revolt led by Prince Faysal also entered Damascus. A military government under Shukri Pasha was named and Faisal ibn Hussein was proclaimed king of Syria. Political tension rose in November 1917, when the new Bolshevik government in Russia revealed the Sykes-Picot Agreement whereby Britain and France had arranged to partition the Arab east between them. A new Franco-British proclamation on 17 November promised the "complete and definitive freeing of the peoples so long oppressed by the Turks." The Syrian National Congress in March adopted a democratic constitution. However, the Versailles Conference had granted France a mandate over Syria, and in 1920 a French army commanded by the General Mariano Goybet crossed the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, defeated a small Syrian defensive expedition at the Battle of Maysalun and entered Damascus. The French made Damascus capital of their League of Nations Mandate for Syria.

When in 1925 the Great Syrian Revolt in the Hauran spread to Damascus, the French suppressed with heavy weaponry, bombing and shelling the city on 9 May 1926. As a result, the area of the old city between Al-Hamidiyah Souq and Medhat Pasha Souq was burned to the ground, with many deaths, and has since then been known as al-Hariqa ("the fire"). The old city was surrounded with barbed wire to prevent rebels infiltrating from the Ghouta, and a new road was built outside the northern ramparts to facilitate the movement of armored cars.

On 21 June 1941, 3 weeks into the Allied Syria-Lebanon campaign, Damascus was captured from the Vichy French forces by a mixed British Indian and Free French force. The French agreed to withdraw in 1946, thus leading to the full independence of Syria. Damascus remained the capital.

经济

Souq Medhat Pasha 02

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Bank Al-Sharq and the Blue Tower Hotel in Damascus

The historical role that Damascus played as an important trade center has changed in recent years due to political development in the region as well as the development of modern trade. Most goods produced in Damascus, as well as in Syria, are distributed to countries of the Arabian peninsula. Damascus has also held an annual international trade exposition every fall, since 1955.

The tourism industry in Damascus has a lot of potential, however the current civil war has hampered these prospects. The abundance of cultural wealth in Damascus has been modestly employed since the late 1980s with the development of many accommodation and transportation establishments and other related investments. Since the early 2000s, numerous boutique hotels and bustling cafes opened in the old city which attract plenty of European tourists and Damascenes alike.
In 2009 new office space was built and became available on the real estate market. The real-estate sector is stopped due to the terrorism and exodus of the population. Damascus is home to a wide range of industrial activity, such as textile, food processing, cement and various chemical industries. The majority of factories are run by the state, however limited privatization in addition to economic activities led by the private sector, were permitted starting in the early 2000s with the liberalization of trade that took place. Traditional handcrafts and artisan copper engravings are still produced in the old city.

The Damascus stock exchange formally opened for trade in March 2009, and the exchange is the only stock exchange in Syria. It is currently located in the Barzeh district, within Syria's financial markets and securities commission. Its final home is to be the upmarket business district of Yaafur.

Demographics

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Three Damascene women; lady wearing qabqabs, a Druze, and a peasant, 1873

The estimated population of Damascus in 2011 was 1,711,000. The Kurds are the largest minority group, with a population of approximately 300,000. Damascus is the centre of an over-crowded metropolitan area with an estimated population of 5 million. The metropolitan area of Damascus includes the cities of Douma, Harasta, Darayya, Al-Tall and Jaramana.

The majority of the population in Damascus came as a result of rural-urban migration.

Religion

The majority of the inhabitants of Damascus are Sunni Muslims, whereas Alawites and Twelver Shi'ites make up a sizeable minority. It is believed that there are more than 2,000 mosques in Damascus, the most well-known being the Umayyad Mosque. Christians represent about 15%-20% of the population. Several Eastern Christian rites have their headquarters in Damascus. The Christian districts in the city are Bab Tuma, Qassaa and Ghassani. Each with many churches, most notably the ancient Chapel of Saint Paul. At the suburb Soufanieh a series of apparitions of the Virgin Mary have reportedly been observed between 1982 and 2004.

There was a small Jewish community namely in what is called Haret al-Yahud the Jewish quarter. They are the remnants of an ancient and much larger Jewish presence in Syria, dating back at least to Roman times, if not before to the time of King David.

Sufism

Sufism throughout the second half of the 20th century has been an influential current in the Sunni religious practises, particularly in Damascus. The largest women-only and girls-only Muslim movement in the world happens to be Sufi-oriented and is based in Damascus, led by Munira al-Qubaysi. Syrian Sufism has its stronghold in urban regions such as Damascus, where it also established political movements such as Zayd, with the help of a series of mosques, and clergy such as Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi, Sa'id Hawwa, Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri and Muhammad al-Yaqoubi.

Historical sites

Damascus square1

Damasco via rectaHPIM3222

Typical ancient Damascene street

Damascus has a wealth of historical sites dating back to many different periods of the city's history. Since the city has been built up with every passing occupation, it has become almost impossible to excavate all the ruins of Damascus that lie up to 8 feet (2.4 m) below the modern level. The Citadel of Damascus is located in the northwest corner of the Old City.的 Damascus Straight Street (referred to in the conversion of St. Paul in Acts 9:11), also known as the Via Recta, was the decumanus (East-West main street) of Roman Damascus, and extended for over 1,500 meters (4,900 ft). Today, it consists of the street of Bab Sharqi and the Souk Medhat Pasha, a covered market. The Bab Sharqi street is filled with small shops and leads to the old Christian quarter of Bab Tuma (St. Thomas's Gate). Medhat Pasha Souq is also a main market in Damascus and was named after Midhat Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Syria who renovated the Souk. At the end of the Bab Sharqi street, one reaches the House of Ananias, an underground chapel that was the cellar of Ananias's house. The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Grand Mosque of Damascus, is one of the largest mosques in the world and also one of the oldest sites of continuous prayer since the rise of Islam. A shrine in the mosque is said to contain the body of St. John the Baptist. The mausoleum where Saladin was buried is located in the gardens just outside the mosque. Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque, the shrine of the youngest daughter of Husayn ibn Ali, can also be found near the Umayyad Mosque. The ancient district of Amara is also within a walking distance from these sites. Another heavily visited site is Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque, where the tomb of Zaynab bint Ali is located.

Shias, Fatemids and Dawoodi Bohras believe that after the battle of Karbala (680 AD), in Iraq, the Umayyad caliph Yezid brought Imam Husain's head to Damascus, where it was first kept in the courtyard of Yezid Mahal, now part of Umayyad Mosque complex. All other remaining members of Imam Husain's family (left alive after Karbala) along with heads of all other companions, who were killed at Karbala, were also brought to Damascus. These members were kept as prisoners on the outskirts of the city (near Bab al-Saghir), where the other heads were kept at the same location, now called "Raous-us-sohda-e-karbala", visited by all Shias. There is a qibla (place of worship) marked at the place, where Imam Ali-Zain-ul-Abedin used to pray while in captivity.

Walls and gates of Damascus

Bab Touma Gate Damascus

The Old City of Damascus with an approximate area of 128 hectares is surrounded by ramparts on the northern and eastern sides and part of the southern side. There are seven extant city gates, the oldest of which dates back to the Roman period. These are, clockwise from the north of the citadel:

Other areas outside the walled city also bear the name "gate": Bab al-Faraj, Bab Mousalla and Bab Sreija, both to the south-west of the walled city.

Churches in the old city

Damascus-Bab Kisan

Islamic sites in the old city

Saladin mouselum tomb Damascus

Madrasas

Khans

Old Damascene houses

Threats to the future of the old City

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Narrow alley in old Damascus

Due to the rapid decline of the population of Old Damascus (between 1995–2005 more than 20,000 people moved out of the old city for more modern accommodation), a growing number of buildings are being abandoned or are falling into disrepair. In March 2007, the local government announced that it would be demolishing Old City buildings along a 1,400-meter (4,600 ft) stretch of rampart walls as part of a redevelopment scheme. These factors resulted in the Old City being placed by the World Monuments Fund on its 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites in the world. It is hoped that its inclusion on the list will draw more public awareness to these significant threats to the future of the historic Old City of Damascus.

Current state of old Damascus

In spite of the recommendations of the UNESCO World Heritage Center:

In October 2010, Global Heritage Fund named Damascus one of 12 cultural heritage sites most "on the verge" of irreparable loss and destruction.

Transportation

Damascus-Hejaz station

Traffic at Damascus streets

Traffic in Damascus in 2008

The main airport is Damascus International Airport, approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) away from the city, with connections to many Asian, European, African, and recently, South American cities. Streets in Damascus are often narrow, especially in the older parts of the city, and speed bumps are widely used to limit the speed of vehicles.

Public transport in Damascus depends extensively on minibuses. There are about one hundred lines that operate inside the city and some of them extend from the city center to nearby suburbs. There is no schedule for the lines, and due to the limited number of official bus stops, buses will usually stop wherever a passenger needs to get on or off. The number of buses serving the same line is relatively high, which minimizes the waiting time. Lines are not numbered, rather they are given captions mostly indicating the two end points and possibly an important station along the line and Taxicab.

Served by Chemins de Fer Syriens, the former main railway station of Damascus was al-Hejaz railway station, about 1 km (0.62 mi) west of the old city. The station is now defunct and the tracks have been removed, but there still is a ticket counter and a shuttle to Damacus Kadam station in the south of the city, which now functions as the main railway station.

In 2008, the government announced a plan to construct a Damascus Metro with opening time for the green line scheduled for 2015. The green line will be an essential West-East axis for the future public transportation network, serving Moadamiyeh, Sumariyeh, Mezzeh, Damascus University, Hijaz, the Old City, Abbassiyeen and Qaboun Pullman bus station. A four-line metro network is expected be in operation by 2050.

文化

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National Museum of Damascus

Damascus was chosen as the 2008 Arab Capital of Culture. The preparation for the festivity began in February 2007 with the establishing of the Administrative Committee for "Damascus Arab Capital of Culture" by a presidential decree.

Sports and leisure

Al-Fayhaa Stadium in Damascus, Syria as seen from Mount Qasioun

Popular sports include football, basketball, swimming, tennis, table tennis, equestrian and chess. Damascus is home to many football clubs that participate in the Syrian Premier League including Al-Jaish, Al-Shurta, Al-Wahda and Al-Majd. Many Other sport clubs are located in several districts of the city: Barada SC, Qasioun SC, Nidal SC, Al-Muhafaza, Al-Fayhaa SC, Al-Thawra SC, Dummar SC and Al-Arin SC.

The fifth and the seventh Pan Arab Games were held in Damascus in 1976 and 1992 respectively.

Damascus has quite busy midnights. Coffeehouses, where —in addition to Arabic coffee and tea— nargileh (water pipes) are served, proliferate Damascus. Card games, tables (backgammon variants), and chess are activities frequented in cafés.

Tishreen Park is one of the largest and popular parks in Damascus. It is home to the annual Damascus Flower Show. Other parks include: al-Jahiz, al-Sibbki, al-Tijara, al-Wahda, etc. Damascus' Ghouta (Oasis) is also a popular weekend-destination for recreation. Many recreation centres operate in the city including sport clubs, swimming pools and golf courses. The Syrian Arab Horse Association in Damascus offers a wide range of activities and services for horse breeders and riders.

Nearby attractions

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Zabadani resort near Damascus

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