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世界真奇妙-亲子游学地理 悉尼儿童实情

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悉尼 是新南威尔士州的州首府,也是澳大利亚和大洋洲人口最多的城市。这座大都市位于澳大利亚的东海岸,环绕着世界上最大的天然海港,并向西扩展至蓝山山脉。悉尼居民被称为“悉尼人”。悉尼是澳大利亚总督和澳大利亚总理的第二个正式议席和第二个官邸,许多联邦政府部门在悉尼都设有大量办事处。

悉尼地区已有至少30,000年的土著澳大利亚人居住。由亚瑟·菲利普(Arthur Phillip)上尉率领的第一批英国定居者于1788年抵达悉尼,将其作为刑事殖民地而建立,这是澳大利亚在欧洲的第一批定居者。自从19世纪中叶定罪运输结束以来,该市已从殖民地变成了全球主要的文化和经济中心。截至2015年6月,悉尼的估计人口为492万。在2011年的人口普查中,有34%的人口报告说他们是在海外出生的,他们来自许多不同的国家,使悉尼成为世界上多元文化最多的城市之一。悉尼有250多种不同的语言,大约三分之一的居民在家说英语以外的其他语言。

尽管是世界上最昂贵的城市之一,但《 2014年美世生活质量调查》在生活质量方面将悉尼排在世界第十位,使其成为最宜居的城市之一。它被全球化和世界城市研究网络列为Alpha +世界城市,这表明它在该地区以及全世界范围内的影响力。悉尼在经济机会方面排名世界第11位,拥有先进的市场经济,在金融,制造业和旅游业方面实力雄厚。 2013年,其地区生产总值为3,370亿澳元,是澳大利亚最大的。悉尼有大量的外国银行和跨国公司,该市已被提升为亚太地区领先的金融中心之一。

除了举办诸如2000年夏季奥运会之类的活动外,悉尼还是世界上访问量最高的15个城市之一,每年都有成千上万的游客前来参观这座城市的地标建筑。它的自然特征包括悉尼海港,皇家国家公园和皇家植物园。诸如悉尼歌剧院,悉尼塔和悉尼海港大桥等人造景点也为国际游客所熟知。

历史

最初的居民

Ku-ring-gai Chase-岩画

第一个居住在现在称为悉尼的地区的人是澳大利亚土著人,他们从澳大利亚北部移民,然后从东南亚移民。放射性碳测年表明人类活动始于大约30735年前的悉尼地区。但是,在西悉尼的砾石沉积物中发现了许多原住民的石器,其历史可追溯至BP的45,000至50,000年,这表明悉尼比人类早发现了人类定居点。

最早的英国定居者称他们为Eora人。 “ Eora”是土著居民用来与英国人首次接触时解释其起源的术语。它的字面意思是“来自这个地方”。在英国人到来之前,悉尼有4000至8000名来自29个不同氏族的土著人。

从杰克逊港到彼得舍姆的悉尼湾居住着凯迪格家族。主要的语言群体是达鲁格,古林盖和达拉瓦尔。最早访问该地区的欧洲人指出,土著人民正在进行诸如露营和钓鱼,使用树木树皮和食物,收集贝壳和烹饪鱼等活动。

发展破坏了这座城市的许多历史,包括最初的居民。在受保护的Ku-ring-gai Chase国家公园中,仍然有岩石艺术和雕刻的例子。土著人民和英国人之间的第一次会面发生在1770年4月29日,詹姆斯·库克中尉降落在库内尔半岛的植物园,遇到了格瓦加尔家族。他在日记中指出,他们对外国访客感到困惑和敌视。库克正在执行勘探任务,没有受命开始定居。他花了很短的时间收集食物并进行科学观察,然后再沿着澳大利亚的东海岸继续向北走,声称自己为英国发现了新土地。

殖民地的建立

托马斯·沃特林(Thomas Watling)-1794年悉尼湾向北直接鸟瞰

悉尼海湾向北的全景,由罪犯艺术家托马斯·沃特林(Thomas Watling)在1794年

英国,在此之前,英国和爱尔兰,很长一段时间以来一直将其定罪者跨大西洋送到美国殖民地。这种贸易以1776年美国的《独立宣言》而结束。英国因囚犯而战胜,于1786年决定在库克大约16年前发现的领土上建立一个新的刑事哨所。

该殖民地最初被冠以“新奥尔比恩”的称号,但菲利普(Phillip)决定承认“悉尼第一男爵”(后来在1789年创建了悉尼第一子爵)及其在授权建立定居点中的作用,决定使用“悉尼”。菲利普船长率领 第一舰队 1788年1月18日,有11艘船和大约850名罪犯进入植物学湾,尽管由于土壤贫瘠和缺乏淡水而被认为是不合适的位置。他向北走了很短一段路,于1788年1月26日到达杰克逊港。这就是新殖民地的所在地。菲利普(Phillip)将悉尼湾描述为“毫无例外地是世界上最好的港口”。殖民地的正式宣布和命名发生在1788年2月7日。

在1788年至1792年之间,约有4,300名罪犯降落在悉尼。殖民地不是建立在自由与繁荣的原则之上的。此刻的地图上没有显示监狱建筑物;对罪犯的处罚是运输而不是监禁,但严重的犯罪行为是鞭打和绞刑。

约瑟夫·莱西特(Joseph Lycett)从道斯角(Dawes Point)看悉尼湾的景色第74页a5491074

从道斯角出发的悉尼湾,1817年

军官和定罪犯都面临饥饿,因为物资不足,几乎无法从土地上耕种。该地区的土著人口也在遭受苦难。据估计,悉尼一半的土著人死于1789年的天花流行。一些人对英国定居者发动了猛烈的抵抗。拉克兰·麦格理(Lachlan Macquarie)于1810年成为州长。

麦格理(Macquarie)确实充分利用了不理想的情况。他的第一个任务是在1808年的朗姆酒叛乱之后,对前任总督恢复秩序。殖民地的条件不利于兴旺的新大都市的发展,但是船舶的定期抵达和海上贸易(例如羊毛)的开始有助于减轻孤立的负担。

麦格理(Macquarie)进行了约265项独立工程的广泛建筑计划。道路,桥梁,码头和公共建筑是使用罪犯人工建造的,到1822年,该镇拥有银行,市场和完善的通道。麦格理(Macquarie)改造殖民地的部分努力是他授权罪犯以自由公民的身份重新进入社会。

现代发展

悉尼1888

1888年悉尼的鸟瞰图

1840年是有罪犯运送到悉尼的最后一年,而此时悉尼有35,000人口。悉尼市议会于1842年成立,成为澳大利亚的第一个城市。 1851年,黄金在殖民地被发现,随之而来的是成千上万的人寻求赚钱。到1871年,悉尼的人口已达到20万。

在1890年代的萧条之后,六个殖民地同意组成澳大利亚联邦的联邦国家。在维多利亚女王统治下,六个殖民地的联邦于1901年1月1日成立。悉尼人口为481,000,后来成为新南威尔士州的州首府。

The Powerhouse Museum Collection悉尼向南的乔治街

乔治街(George Street),从强力博物馆(Powerhouse Museum)向南看,大约1900年。

1930年代的大萧条对悉尼的经济产生了严重影响,就像整个工业界的大多数城市一样。在1930年代的大部分时间里,多达三分之一的养家糊口的人失业。悉尼海港大桥的建设在1924年至1932年之间雇用了1,400名工人,从而缓解了经济下滑的某些影响。尽管经济萧条,人口仍在继续繁荣,并于1925年达到100万。

1939年英国向德国宣战时,澳大利亚也加入了。在战争期间,悉尼经历了工业发展的激增,以满足战时经济的需求。现在远没有大规模失业,而是劳动力短缺,妇女活跃于男性角色。悉尼的海港在1942年5月和6月遭到日军的攻击,遭到日本潜艇的直接攻击,造成人员丧生。整个城市的家庭都建立了防空洞并进行了演习。

悉尼1932

战争结束后,这座城市继续扩张。 1950年,悉尼有170万人居住,到1975年,将近300万人居住在悉尼。1954年,一位统治王朝的君主首次踏上澳大利亚的土地,开始了她的皇家巡回演出,悉尼人民热烈欢迎伊丽莎白女王二世。 Ma下通过悉尼海角到达不列颠尼亚皇家游艇,在农场湾(Farm Cove)上岸。悉尼的标志性歌剧院由女王Her下于1973年开放。

直到1850年代,悉尼和墨尔本之间的激烈竞争至今仍然存在。悉尼在20世纪初超过了墨尔本的人口,并且仍然是澳大利亚最大的城市。 2000年夏季奥运会在悉尼举行,并被国际奥委会主席誉为“有史以来最好的奥运会”。歌剧院于2007年成为世界遗产。

地理

地形

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卫星图像向西看,左边是植物学湾,右边是杰克逊港

悉尼是一个沿海盆地,东面是塔斯曼海,西面是蓝山山脉,北面是霍克斯伯里河,南面是沃罗诺拉高原。内城区面积25平方公里(10平方英里),大悉尼地区占地12367平方公里(4775平方英里),城市面积为1687平方公里(651平方英里)。

悉尼跨越两个地理区域。坎伯兰平原位于海港的南部和西部,相对平坦。霍恩斯比高原位于北部,被陡峭的山谷所分割。随着城市的发展,南部的平坦地区是第一个开发的地区。直到悉尼海港大桥的建设,海岸的北部才变得人口稠密。沿海岸线可以找到70个海滩,其中邦迪海滩是最著名的海滩之一。

Nepean河环绕在城市的西部边缘,并在到达Broken Bay之前成为Hawkesbury河。悉尼的大部分水库都位于Nepean河的支流上。帕拉马塔河(Parramatta River)主要是工业用水,将悉尼西郊的大部分地区排入杰克逊港。城市的南部被乔治河和库克斯河排入植物园湾。

(1)桑德斯采石场1

悉尼周围几乎所有裸露的岩石都是砂岩

地质学

悉尼主要由三叠纪岩石组成,最近有一些火成岩和火山颈。悉尼盆地是在三叠纪早期地壳扩张,沉降并充满沉积物时形成的。今天要成为砂岩的沙子是从布罗肯希尔(Broken Hill)洗掉的,并在大约2亿年前沉积下来。砂岩有页岩晶状体和化石河床。

悉尼盆地生物区包括悬崖,海滩和河口的沿海特征。在三叠纪时期,悉尼现在所在的沿海地区的霍克斯伯里砂岩中雕刻了深谷河谷(rias)。 18,000至6,000年前的海平面上升淹没了里亚斯河,形成了河口和深海港。杰克逊港(又名悉尼海港)就是其中之一。

桉树(9622810704)

悉尼的干燥硬叶丛灌木丛,有桉树(皇家国家公园,萨瑟兰郡)

植被

悉尼地区最流行的植物群落是 干燥的硬叶林,由主要位于开阔林地的桉树,硬叶灌木(通常是荆棘和山龙眼)和林下的半连续草组成。这些植物生长在土壤肥力低的地区,叶片往往粗糙而尖刺。在悉尼潮湿的高架地区(例如东北部)发现了湿的硬叶森林。它们的定义是直而高大的树冠,上面有一层柔软的灌木,树蕨和草药精心制作的潮湿底层。

气候

悉尼海港大桥沙尘暴

2009年澳大利亚沙尘暴中的悉尼海港大桥

根据柯本–盖格分类,悉尼属于亚热带湿润气候(CFA),夏季,冬季温暖,全年降雨均匀。悉尼天文台山的主要气象站的极端温度范围从2013年1月18日的45.8°C(114.4°F)到1932年6月22日的2.1°C(35.8°F);而在悉尼机场车站,极端温度范围为46.4至-0.1°C(115.5至31.8°F)。 CBD中平均每年有14.9天的温度达到或高于30°C(86°F)。相反,根据郊区的不同,大都市区平均需要35天到65天。 2011年2月,天文台山记录的最高最低温度为27.6°C(82°F),而最低的最高温度为1868年7月记录的7.7°C(46°F)。

天气因靠近海洋而有所缓和,内陆西部郊区的极端温度更高。悉尼经历了城市热岛效应。这使城市的某些地区更容易遭受极端高温。在春季和夏季的晚些时候,温度通常不会超过35°C(95°F),尽管炎热干燥的条件通常会因南风破坏而结束。这场强风暴带来大风和温度快速下降,随后是短暂的大雨和雷声。由于地处内陆,冬季在悉尼西部记录了几次霜冻。秋季和春季是过渡季节,春季显示的温度变化大于秋季。

悉尼闪电-Panoramio

降雨具有中等至低的变化性,并且在几个月中平均分布,尽管在今年上半年略有增加。从1990年至1999年,悉尼每年大约遭受20次雷暴。在深秋和冬季,东海岸的低谷可能会带来大量降雨,尤其是在中央商务区。根据风向,夏季天气可能是潮湿或干燥的,夏末/秋季的平均湿度和露点要高于春末/初夏。在夏季,大部分降雨来自雷暴,而冬季则来自冷锋。最近一次降雪是在1836年在悉尼市区报告的,而在2008年7月,许多人误认为是降雪或冰雹的降雪,这也增加了1836年事件也不下雪的可能性。

尽管前飓风的残留确实影响了这座城市,但这座城市很少受到飓风的影响。厄尔尼诺-南方涛动在确定悉尼的天气模式中起着重要作用:一方面是干旱和丛林大火,另一方面是暴风雨和洪水,这与振荡的相反阶段有关。该市许多与灌木林接壤的地区都经历过林区大火,这些大火往往发生在春季和夏季。这个城市也容易遭受强风暴。其中一种风暴是1999年的冰雹,它产生了直径至少9厘米(3.5英寸)的巨大冰雹。

气象局报告说,自1859年开始记录以来,2002年至2005年是悉尼最温暖的夏天。然而,事实证明2007-08年是1996-97年以来最冷的夏天,也是本世纪唯一的夏天。或低于平均温度。 2009年,干燥的天气向澳大利亚东部带来了严重的沙尘暴。海洋的年平均温度高于21°C(70°F),月平均范围从7月的18°C(64°F)到1月的24°C(75°F)。

悉尼的气候数据
一月 二月 三月 四月 可以 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月
记录最高°C(°F) 45.3
(113.5)
42.1
(107.8)
39.8
(103.6)
33.9
(93)
30.0
(86)
26.9
(80.4)
25.9
(78.6)
31.3
(88.3)
34.6
(94.3)
38.2
(100.8)
41.8
(107.2)
42.2
(108)
45.3
(113.5)
平均高温(°F) 25.9
(78.6)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.5)
22.4
(72.3)
19.4
(66.9)
16.9
(62.4)
16.3
(61.3)
17.8
(64)
20.0
(68)
22.1
(71.8)
23.6
(74.5)
25.2
(77.4)
21.7
(71.1)
平均低温(°F) 18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
17.5
(63.5)
14.7
(58.5)
11.5
(52.7)
9.3
(48.7)
8.0
(46.4)
8.9
(48)
11.1
(52)
13.5
(56.3)
15.6
(60.1)
17.5
(63.5)
13.8
(56.8)
记录最低°C(°F) 10.6
(51.1)
9.6
(49.3)
9.3
(48.7)
7.0
(44.6)
4.4
(39.9)
2.1
(35.8)
2.2
(36)
2.7
(36.9)
4.9
(40.8)
5.7
(42.3)
7.7
(45.9)
9.1
(48.4)
2.1
(35.8)
降雨毫米(英寸) 101.5
(3.996)
118.7
(4.673)
128.9
(5.075)
125.8
(4.953)
121.1
(4.768)
130.7
(5.146)
97.3
(3.831)
81.2
(3.197)
69.1
(2.72)
77.6
(3.055)
83.1
(3.272)
77.8
(3.063)
1,212.8
(47.748)
平均雨天 (≥任意音量) 12.2 12.4 13.5 12.8 13.2 12.5 11.1 10.5 10.6 11.6 11.6 11.5 143.5
日照时间 220.1 194.3 198.4 192.0 182.9 165.0 198.4 220.1 216.0 223.2 234.0 235.6 2,480
资料来源:气象局

地区

从悉尼塔看悉尼的景色

威廉·道斯中尉在1790年制定了一个城市规划,但殖民地领导人忽略了该规划。悉尼今天的布局反映了这种规划不足。悉尼市区覆盖的地理区域分为658个郊区,用于地址和邮政用途,并作为40个地方政府区域进行管理。悉尼市负责这些郊区中的33个,它们都位于中央商务区附近。

悉尼周围有15个连续区域:中央商务区,坎特伯雷-班克斯敦,东部郊区,森林区,大悉尼西区,希尔斯区,内西区,麦克阿瑟,北部海滩,北部郊区,北岸,南部悉尼,圣乔治,萨瑟兰郡和西悉尼。 CBD以外最大的商业中心是北部的北悉尼和查茨伍德,西部的帕拉马塔,西南部的利物浦和班克斯敦,南部的赫斯特维尔和东部的邦迪交界处。自1950年代以来,帕拉马塔(Parramatta)的商业发展一直在加速,因为服务西悉尼的公司已经设立了区域办事处,并认识到该地区大量的居民人口和较低的租金。

内郊区

东安扎克桥

横跨约翰斯顿湾的安扎克大桥将皮尔蒙特郊区与中央商务区连接起来。

CBD本身从悉尼湾向南延伸约3公里(1.9英里)。它与东方皇家植物园内的农庄湾接壤,西邻达令港。 CBD周边的郊区包括东部的Woolloomooloo和Potts Point,南部的Surry Hills和Darlinghurst,西部的Pyrmont和Ultimo,以及北部的Millers Point和The Rocks。这些郊区大多数面积不到1平方公里(0.4平方英里)。

悉尼内河沿岸遍布郊区以外的几个地方。中央码头和环形码头是具有轮渡,铁路和公交车站交汇处的交通枢纽。唐人街,达令港和国王十字是文化,旅游和休闲的重要场所。 Strand Arcade位于皮特街购物中心和乔治街之间,是一处历史悠久的维多利亚风格的购物商场。 1892年4月1日开业,其店面是原始内部购物立面的精确复制品。

悉尼内城区的高档化趋势很长。位于港口的皮尔蒙特(Pyrmont)从航运和国际贸易中心重新发展为高密度住房,旅游住宿和赌博区。达令赫斯特(Darlinghurst)最初位于城市外围,是前监狱,制造业和混合住房的所在地。自1980年代以来,露台式房屋已基本保留,达令赫斯特(Darlinghurst)经历了显着的高档化。

格林广场(Green Square)是滑铁卢的前工业区,正在进行价值80亿澳元的城市更新。在城市港口边缘,作为Barangaroo的新区域,历史悠久的郊区和Millers Point码头正在建设中。无论Millers Point / Barangaroo所产生的价值60亿美元的经济活动如何,其发展都存在重大争议。帕丁顿(Paddington)郊区是著名的郊区,其街道上有经过修复的排屋,维多利亚军营和购物场所,包括每周的牛津街集市。

西部的内郊区包括巴尔曼(Balmain)和阿什菲尔德(Ashfield),该镇曾经是工薪阶层的工矿小镇,但经历了广泛的绅士化,而澳大利亚的城市密度相对较高。纽敦市内西郊的主要购物区位于国王街(King Street),是澳大利亚维多利亚时代和联邦时期晚期最长,最完整的商业区。

东部郊区

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克罗纳拉沙丘与悉尼市。

东郊的沃克吕兹(Vaucluse)是澳大利亚最富裕的城市之一。邻近的Point Piper郊区拥有Wolseley路,这是世界上第九昂贵的街道。东郊还发现了以旅游和休闲而闻名的库吉和邦迪。邦迪交界处是悉尼仅次于中央商务区的第五大商业区,北悉尼,帕拉马塔和车士活,是一个主要的商业区,自20世纪末以来发生了许多变化。

植物园湾附近的库尔内尔半岛是东部海岸(后来的上尉)詹姆斯·库克于1770年在东部海岸线上首次登陆的地点。拉贝鲁斯(La Perouse),以法国航海家让·弗朗索瓦·德·盖洛普(Jean-Françoisde Galaup)命名deLapérouse(1741-88),以其在裸岛和植物园国家公园的旧军事哨所而闻名。悉尼东南部的克罗纳拉(Cronulla)郊区靠近澳大利亚最古老的国家公园皇家国家公园。赫斯特维尔(Hurstville)是一个大型郊区,拥有众多商业​​建筑和高层住宅建筑,主导着天际线,现已成为南部郊区的中央商业区。

北部郊区

由于“北郊”不是一个明确定义的区域(尽管在北岸地区的生活方式和社会群体有明显不同的定义),因此“北郊”还可能包括上北岸,下北岸甚至郊区。北部海滩。

北部郊区有许多地标,包括麦格理大学,格拉德斯维尔大桥,莱德桥,麦格理中心和韦斯特菲尔德霍恩斯比。该地区包括霍恩斯比郡,莱德市和帕拉马塔市地方政府地区的郊区。北部郊区有精心规划的公共交通系统和坚固的洋房风格房屋。

北悉尼的天际线

北岸,一个非正式的地理术语,指的是悉尼北部都会区,由Template:NSWcity / core,Chatswood,Template:NSWcity / core,Template:NSWcity / core,Killara,Template:NSWcity / core,Template:NSWcity组成/ core,Template:NSWcity / core等。北岸是中上阶层地区,是悉尼房价最高的地区之一,最近的房价上涨使罗斯维尔,林菲尔德,基拉拉和戈登等郊区的平均房价超过200万美元。

北岸包括北悉尼和车士活的商业中心。北悉尼本身由一个大型商业中心组成,拥有自己的商业中心,该商业中心仅次于中央商务区,是悉尼第二高的高层建筑。北悉尼以广告,营销业务和相关行业为主导,许多大型公司在该地区设有办事处。

下北岸通常指与港口相邻的郊区,例如Template:NSWcity / core,Template:NSWcity / core,Mosman,Template:NSWcity / core,Cremorne Point,Template:NSWcity / core,Milsons Point,Template:NSWcity / core,北桥和北悉尼。下北岸的东部边界是中海港,或在Roseville Bridge的Template:NSWcity / core和Template:NSWcity / core。上北海岸通常是指位于车士活和Template:NSWcity / core之间的郊区。它由位于Ku-ring-gai和Hornsby Shire议会内的郊区组成。

北部海滩地区包括曼利(Manly),这是十九世纪和二十世纪大部分时间悉尼最受欢迎的度假胜地之一。北部海滩区向南延伸至杰克逊港(悉尼港)的入口,向西延伸至中港,向北延伸至破碎湾的入口。 2011年澳大利亚人口普查发现,北部海滩是澳大利亚最白人和最单一种族的地区,与之相比,北海岸和北海岸和中央海岸则更为多样化。

西部郊区

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<p>大西部郊区包括澳大利亚第六大商业区帕拉马塔,班克斯敦,利物浦,彭里斯和费尔菲尔德。悉尼西部占地5800平方公里(2,200平方英里),截至2008年6月30日,常住人口估计为1,665,673,是该州多元文化最多的郊区。人口主要是工人阶级背景,主要从事重工业和职业贸易。</p>
<p>位于布莱克敦市的Prospect的西郊是Wet'n'Wild的家园,该水上乐园由Village Roadshow Theme Parks运营。奥本植物园(Auburn Botanic Gardens)是位于奥本(Auburn)的植物园,每年吸引成千上万的游客,其中包括来自澳大利亚以外的大量游客。大西部地区还包括悉尼奥林匹克公园和郊区的悉尼赛车公园,悉尼奥林匹克公园是为举办2000年夏季奥运会而创建的。</p>
<p>在西北地区,位于布莱克敦(Blacktown)附近的道恩赛德(Doonside)的澳大利亚动物园-羽毛谷野生动物公园(Featherdale Wildlife Park)是一个重要的旅游胜地,不仅对西悉尼,而且对新南威尔士州和澳大利亚而言。帕拉马塔(Parramatta)的Westfield Parramatta是澳大利亚最繁忙的Westfield购物中心,每年有2870万顾客访问。</p>
<p>再往西南是麦克阿瑟(Macarthur)地区和坎贝尔镇(Campbelltown)市,这是一个重要的人口中心,直到1990年代才被认为是与悉尼分开的地区。坎贝尔镇的购物中心Macarthur Square成为悉尼最大的购物中心之一。</p>
<h2><span class=客层
海外出生人口最多
出生国家 人口(2011年)
英国 英国 155,065
中华人民共和国 中国 146,853
印度” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/23px-Flag_of_India.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/35px-Flag_of_India.svg.png 1.5x,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4 /41/Flag_of_India.svg/45px-Flag_of_India.svg.png 2x“ /></span> 印度</td>
<td>86,767</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class=新西兰 新西兰 77,297
越南” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/23px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/35px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2 /21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/45px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png 2x“ /></span> 越南</td>
<td>69,405</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class=菲律宾” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 12” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 1.5x,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9 /99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 2x“ /></span> 菲律宾</td>
<td>61,122</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class=黎巴嫩” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/23px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/35px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5 /59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/45px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png 2x“ /></span> 黎巴嫩</td>
<td>54,215</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class=南韩 南韩 39,694
意大利” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/23px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/35px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0 /03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/45px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 2x“ /></span> 意大利</td>
<td>39,155</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class=香港 香港 36,804

1788年,悉尼的人口不到1000。有了罪犯运输,它在十年内增长了两倍,达到2,953。自1961年以来,人口每十年增加25万多。 2011年人口普查时,悉尼的人口为4,391,674。据预测,到2061年,人口将增长到8到850万。尽管澳大利亚统计局预测这一增长,到2053年,墨尔本将取代悉尼成为澳大利亚人口最多的城市。澳大利亚四个人口最稠密的郊区是位于悉尼,每平方公里的居民人数超过13,000(每平方英里33,700居民)。

Chinese New Year Parade in Chinatown Sydney

The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older. The married population accounts for 49.7% of Sydney whilst 34.7% of people have never been married. 48.9% of couples have children and 33.5% of couples do not. 32.5% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with Arabic, Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Greek the most widely spoken.

There were 54,746 people of indigenous heritage living in Sydney in 2011. Most immigrants to Sydney between 1840 and 1930 were British, Irish, or Chinese. There were significant clusters of people based on nationality or religion throughout the history of Sydney development. In the early 20th century Irish people were centred in Surry Hills, the Scottish in Paddington.

The mass migration following World War II has seen further ethnic groups establish. Such ethnic groups include, but are not limited to, Dutch, Sri Lankan, Indian, Assyrian, Turkish, Thai, Russian, Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, Greek, Lebanese, Italian, Jewish, Czech, Polish, German, Serbian, Macedonian, and Maltese communities. As of the 2011 census night there were 1,503,620 people living in Sydney that were born overseas, accounting for 42.5% of the population of the City of Sydney and 34.2% of the population of Sydney, the seventh greatest proportion of any city in the world.

Sydney's largest ancestry groups are English, Australian, Irish, Chinese, and Scottish. Foreign countries of birth with the greatest representation are England, China, India, New Zealand, and Vietnam. The concentration of immigrants in Sydney, relative to the rest of Australia (excluding Melbourne), make it the exception rather than the norm on having such a high foreign born population.

文化

Science, art, and history

Art Gallery of New South Wales at night

The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in 1857 with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony. It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. In 1995 the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House. It recounts the story of the city's development. Other museums based in Sydney include the Powerhouse Museum and the Australian National Maritime Museum.

In 1866 then Queen Victoria gave her assent to the formation of the Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney. The Sydney Observatory building was constructed in 1859 and used for astronomy and meteorology research until 1982 before being converted into a museum.

ANZAC War Memorial, Hyde Park, Sydney

The Anzac War Memorial in Hyde Park is a public memorial dedicated to the achievement of the Australian Imperial Force of World War I.

The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. Its collection was founded in the 1940s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney. Sydney's other significant art institution is the Art Gallery of New South Wales which coordinates the coveted Archibald Prize for portraiture. Contemporary art galleries are found in Waterloo, Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, Paddington, Chippendale, Newtown, and Woollahra.

Entertainment

Atrium of State Theatre IMG 4687a

The State Theatre on Market Street was opened in 1929.

Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. The live medium lost much of its popularity to cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II. Prominent theatres in the city today include State Theatre, Theatre Royal, Sydney Theatre, The Wharf Theatre, and Capitol Theatre. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It occasionally features Australian theatre icons such as David Williamson, Hugo Weaving, and Geoffrey Rush. The city's other prominent theatre companies are New Theatre, Belvoir, and Griffin Theatre Company.

The Sydney Opera House is the home of Opera Australia and Sydney Symphony. It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973. Two other important performance venues in Sydney are Town Hall and the City Recital Hall. The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.

Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema. Fox Studios Australia commenced production in Sydney in 1998. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The MatrixMission: Impossible IIMoulin Rouge!AustraliaThe Great Gatsby。 The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, and Cate Blanchett.

Sydney Harbour during Vivid Sydney 2015

The Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Opera House illuminated during the 2015 Vivid Sydney festival of light

Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia. The Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival. Big Day Out is a travelling rock music festival that originated in Sydney. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music.

In 2015, Sydney was ranked 15th for being the top fashion capitals in the world. It hosts the Australian Fashion Week in autumn. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since 1979. Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the 1850s. It moved from George Street to Campbell Street to its current setting in Dixon Street in 1980. The Spanish Quarter is based in Liverpool Street whilst Little Italy is located in Stanley Street. Popular nightspots are found at Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Circular Quay, and The Rocks. The Star is the city's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour.

Religion

The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as "dreamings". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's. These and other religious institutions have contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time. 28.3% identify themselves as Catholic, whilst 17.6% practice no religion, 16.1% are Anglican, 4.7% are Muslim, 4.2% are Eastern Orthodox, 4.1% are Buddhist, 2.6% are Hindu, and 0.9% are Jewish.

Sport and outdoor activities

Homebush, NSW, Australia

Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from 1810 in Hyde Park. Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the Golden Slipper Stakes attract widespread attention. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s. Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the Sydney Cricket Ground since 1878. The New South Wales Blues compete in the Sheffield Shield league and the Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder contest the national Big Bash Twenty20 competition.

Rugby was played from 1865 as sport in general gained more popularity and better organisation. One-tenth of the colony attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907. Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908. The New South Wales Waratahs contest the Super Rugby competition. The national Wallabies rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the Bledisloe Cup, Rugby Championship, and World Cup. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. New South Wales contests the annual State of Origin series against Queensland.

Sydney FC and the Western Sydney Wanderers compete in the A-League soccer tournament and Sydney frequently hosts matches for the Australian national team, the Socceroos. The Sydney Swans and the Greater Western Sydney Giants are local Australian rules football clubs that play in the Australian Football League. The Sydney Kings compete in the National Basketball League. The Sydney Uni Flames play in the Women's National Basketball League. The Sydney Blue Sox contest the Australian Baseball League. The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League. The Sydney Bears and Sydney Ice Dogs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league.

Sydney harbour and sailboats

Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the 1830s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach. Disputes about appropriate clothing for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. The City2Surf is an annual 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) running race from the central business district to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world.

Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since 1827. Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron was founded in 1862. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is a 1,170-kilometre (727-mile) event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day. Since its inception in 1945 it has been recognised as one of the most difficult yacht races in the world. Six sailors died and 71 vessels of the fleet of 115 failed to finish in the 1998 edition.

The Royal Sydney Golf Club is based in Rose Bay and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the Australian Open on 13 occasions. Royal Randwick Racecourse opened in 1833 and holds several major cups throughout the year. Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the 2000 Summer Olympics. Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures.

Media

The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media, it has been published continuously since 1831. Its competitor is the News Corporation tabloid The Daily Telegraph which has been in print since 1879. Both papers have Sunday tabloid editions called The Sun-HeraldThe Sunday Telegraph respectively. The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in 1880 and became Australia's longest running magazine. It closed after 128 years of continuous publication.

Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. Nine's offices are based in Willoughby, Ten and Seven are based in Pyrmont, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation is located in Ultimo, and the Special Broadcasting Service is based in Artarmon. Multiple digital channels have been provided by all five networks since 2000. Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area. Sydney's first radio stations commenced broadcasting in the 1920s. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet. 2UE was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting. Competing stations include the more popular 2GB, 702 ABC Sydney, KIIS 106.5, Triple M, Nova 96.9, and 2Day FM.

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