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洛杉矶
大都会
洛杉矶市
昵称: “洛杉矶”,“天使之城”,“天使之城”,“世界娱乐之都”,“大橙子”,“拉拉土地”,“ Tinseltown”,
在加利福尼亚州洛杉矶县的位置
在加利福尼亚州洛杉矶县的位置
国家 美国
加利福尼亚州

加利福尼亚州洛杉矶县的旗子.svg 洛杉矶


CSA 洛杉矶长滩
MSA 洛杉矶-长滩-阿纳海姆
普韦布洛 1781年9月4日
成立公司 1850年4月4日
命名为 圣母天使皇后
区域
•大都会 503平方英里(1,302公里2
•土地 469平方英里(1,214公里2
• 水 34平方英里(88 km2)6.7%
海拔 305英尺(93米)
最高海拔 1,074英尺(5,074英尺)
最低海拔 0英尺(0米)
人口 (2015年1月1日)
•大都会 3,971,883
•等级 加利福尼亚第一
美国第二
•密度 8,282 /平方英里(3,198 /公里2
•城市 12,150,996
•地铁 13,131,431
•CSA 18,679,763(美国:第2)
假名 安杰列诺
时区 太平洋(UTC-8)
•夏季(DST) PDT(UTC-7)
邮递区号 90001-90068、90070-90084、90086-90089、90091、90093-90097、90099、90101-90103、90174、90185、90189、90291-90293、91040-91043、91303-91308、91342-91349、91352-91353, 91356-91357、91364-91367、91401-91499、91601-91609
区号 213、310 / 424、562、323、661、747 / 818
FIPS代码 06-44000
GNIS功能ID 16623282410877

洛杉矶听一世,西班牙语为“天使”;西班牙语: (los'an.xe.les)),正式 洛杉矶市 通常以其首字母开头 洛杉矶,是南加州的文化,金融和商业中心。根据2015年的人口普查,该地区人口为3,971,883,是美国第二大人口城市(仅次于纽约市)和加利福尼亚最大的城市。洛杉矶位于一个大型沿海盆地,三面环山,山脉高达10,000英尺(3,000多米)并超过10,000英尺(3,000米),占地面积约469平方英里(1,210公里)2)到2010年为止,洛杉矶是大洛杉矶都会区和大洛杉矶地区的焦点,分别拥有1300万人和1800万人使其成为世界上人口最多的大都市区之一,并且是美国第二大城市和美国最密集的城市地区。洛杉矶还是美国人口最多的县洛杉矶县的所在地。这个城市的居民被称为安杰列诺斯。

历史上曾是Chumash和Tongva的故乡,胡安·罗德里格斯·卡布里略(JuanRodríguezCabrillo)于1542年将其与其余的阿尔塔加州(Alta California)合并为西班牙。该城市由西班牙省长费利佩·德·内夫(Felipe de Neve)于1781年9月4日正式成立。在墨西哥独立战争之后,它于1821年成为墨西哥的一部分。 1848年,在墨西哥-美国战争结束时,作为《瓜达卢佩·伊达尔戈条约》的一部分,购买了洛杉矶和加利福尼亚州的其余地区,从而成为美国的一部分。洛杉矶于1850年4月4日成立为直辖市,距加利福尼亚州建州五个月。 1890年代发现的石油为这座城市带来了快速的增长。洛杉矶渡槽于1913年完工,从东加利福尼亚州供水,后来确保了该市的持续快速增长。

洛杉矶被称为“天使之城”,因其地中海气候,种族多样性和广阔的大都市而闻名。这座城市还以好莱坞的故乡而闻名,好莱坞是美国娱乐业的主要中心,也是电影,录音音乐和电视节目制作方面的世界领导者之一。洛杉矶在文化,媒体,时尚,科学,体育,技术,教育,医学和研究方面也拥有多元化的经济。它是全球性城市,在全球城市指数中排名第六,在全球经济实力指数中排名第9。该市是涵盖广泛专业和文化领域的知名机构的所在地,并且是美国境内最重要的经济引擎之一。洛杉矶联合统计区(CSA)的都市生产总值(GMP)为8,310亿美元(截至2008年)),使其成为仅次于大东京和纽约都会区的世界第三大城市。

该市曾于1932年和1984年举办过夏季奥运会,并正在申办2024年夏季奥运会,因此成为继伦敦三度举办奥运会之后的第二座城市。洛杉矶地区还举办了1994年FIFA男足世界杯决赛和1999年FIFA女足世界杯决赛。这两场比赛都在附近帕萨迪纳市的玫瑰碗举行。全世界有7亿多人在电视上观看了男子赛事。

历史

前殖民时期

Chufa的Rafael与人类学家分享了文化知识

在欧洲人定居洛杉矶之前,楚玛什人就住在洛杉矶。

洛杉矶沿海地区最初是由通瓦(加布里埃莱诺斯)和数千年前的丘马什美国原住民部落。该地区的加百列利诺定居点被称为 iyáangẚ (由西班牙语写成杨娜),意思是“毒橡树的地方”。

出生于葡萄牙的探险家胡安·罗德里格斯·卡布里洛(JuanRodríguezCabrillo)在1542年占领了南加利福尼亚地区,成为西班牙王国的西班牙帝国,当时这是一次正式的军事探险之旅,从中部和北部的新西班牙早期殖民地沿太平洋海岸向北移动。南美洲。加斯珀·德波托拉(Gaspar dePortolà)和方济各会传教士胡安·克雷斯皮(JuanCrespí)于1769年8月2日到达洛杉矶现址。

西班牙时期

1771年,方济会修道士朱尼佩罗·塞拉(JuníperoSerra)指挥了圣加布里埃尔·阿坎格尔传教团的建设,这是该地区的第一个传教团。 1781年9月4日,由四十四个定居者组成的“ Los Pobladores”建立了一个叫做“ El Pueblo de NuestraSeñorala Reina de losÁngelesdePorciúncula”的镇。在英语中,它是“圣母大教堂(Porciúncula的天使女王)”。天使女王是圣母玛利亚的敬意。三分之二的定居者是混血儿或混血儿,混有非洲,土著和欧洲血统。该定居点仍然是一个小牧场小镇,但是到1820年,人口已增加到650名左右。今天,人们在洛杉矶历史悠久的地区纪念普韦布洛广场和洛杉矶最古老的地区奥尔维拉街。

墨西哥时期

新西班牙于1821年脱离西班牙帝国而获得独立,而普韦布洛则继续作为墨西哥的一部分。在墨西哥统治期间,州长皮奥·皮科(PíoPico)成为加利福尼亚州洛杉矶阿尔塔的区域首府。

美国时期

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1869年的LosÁngeles广场,向北望向上城区。

墨西哥统治在墨西哥-美国战争期间结束:经过一系列战斗,美国人从加利福尼亚州取得了控制权,并最终于1847年1月13日签署了《卡乌恩加条约》。

铁路在1876年通向洛杉矶的南太平洋线完工后到达。1892年在城市和周边地区发现了石油,到1923年,这些发现已帮助加利福尼亚州成为美国最大的石油生产国,约占四分之一世界石油产量的百分比。

到1900年,人口增长到102,000多,给城市的供水造成压力。在威廉·穆赫兰(William Mulholland)的监督下,1913年洛杉矶渡槽的建成确保了城市的持续发展。由于该市宪章中的条款有效地阻止了洛杉矶市向其边界以外的任何地区出售水或从渡槽向其提供水,许多邻近的城市和社区被迫将自己吞并到洛杉矶。

1910年,好莱坞合并到洛杉矶,当时该市已有10家电影公司在运营。到1921年,全球电影业的80%以上集中在洛杉矶。电影业产生的钱使这座城市免受大萧条期间该国其他地区遭受的大部分经济损失的影响。

到1930年,人口已超过一百万。 1932年,这座城市举办了夏季奥运会。

第二次世界大战期间,洛杉矶是战时制造业的主要中心,例如造船和飞机。 Calship在Terminal Island建造了数百艘自由舰和胜利舰,而洛杉矶地区则是该国六家主要飞机制造商(道格拉斯飞机公司,休斯飞机,洛克希德公司,北美航空,诺斯罗普公司和Vultee)的总部。战争期间,自1903年莱特兄弟首飞以来,一年内生产的飞机数量就比战前所有年份的总和还多。洛杉矶的制造业飞速发展,正如国防咨询委员会的威廉·S·努德森(William S. Knudsen)所说:“我们之所以获胜,是因为我们在敌人的大量生产中扼杀了敌人,这是他从未见过,也没有梦想的。

外部,北侧展示厅地板-Richfield Oil Building,555 South Flower Street,洛杉矶,洛杉矶县,CA HABS CAL,19-LOSAN,67-7

里奇菲尔德塔(Richfield Tower)是1929年装饰艺术风格的地标,于1969年被拆除。

第二次世界大战结束后,洛杉矶以前所未有的速度增长,席卷了圣费尔南多山谷。 1950年代和1960年代间州际公路系统的扩展,推动了郊区的发展,并标志着曾经世界上最大的电气化铁路系统的衰落。

1960年代,种族关系演变成1965年的瓦特骚乱,造成34人死亡和1,000多人受伤。直到1992年洛杉矶骚乱,这是该城市历史上最严重的骚乱。1969年,洛杉矶成为互联网的发源地,因为第一笔ARPANET传输是从加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)发送到SRI的在门洛公园。

1984年,该市第二次举办夏季奥运会。尽管遭到14个共产党国家的抵制,但1984年的奥运会在财务上比以往任何时候都更加成功,而第二届奥运会直到那时都实现了盈利-根据对当代报纸报道的分析,另一场也是1932年夏季奥运会在洛杉矶。

1992年4月29日,种族紧张局势爆发,西米山谷陪审团宣告在录像带上抓获的警察殴打罗德尼·金,最终导致大规模骚乱。它们是美国历史上最大的暴动,造成大约13亿美元的损失,53人死亡和2,000多人受伤。

1994年,诺斯里奇(Northridge)6.7级地震震惊了这座城市,造成125亿美元的损失和72人死亡。本世纪以Rampart丑闻结束,Rampart丑闻是美国历史上记录最广泛的警察不当行为案件之一。

2002年,选民击败了圣费尔南多山谷和好莱坞从该市脱离的努力。

地理

另见:洛杉矶盆地,圣费尔南多谷,大洛杉矶地区和加利福尼亚州洛杉矶县

城市风光

从穆赫兰德驱动器观看的洛杉矶全景。
从左到右:圣加百列山,市中心,好莱坞(前景)和威尔希尔大道

柯达剧院的好莱坞大道

好莱坞在洛杉矶附近。

该城市分为80多个区和社区,其中许多是合并成城市的地方或社区。这些街区都是零星的,并且定义明确,以至于该市几乎所有路标上都有标牌。

更广泛地说,该城市分为以下区域:洛杉矶市中心,东洛杉矶和东北洛杉矶,南洛杉矶,海港区,大好莱坞,威尔希尔,西区以及圣费尔南多和克雷塔塔山谷。

总览

这座城市的街道格局通常遵循网格规划,街区长度均匀,偶尔的道路横穿街区。但是,这由于崎terrain的地形而变得复杂,这使得洛杉矶覆盖的每个山谷都必须具有不同的网格。主要街道的设计目的是使大量交通流经城市的许多地方。其中许多都非常长:Sepulveda大道长43英里(69公里),而Foothill大道长60英里(97公里),远至圣贝纳迪诺。根据导航系统制造商汤姆汤姆(TomTom)的年度交通指数,洛杉矶的司机正处于世界上最繁忙的高峰时段之一。洛杉矶司机每年要花费92个小时的额外交通时间。根据该指数,在高峰高峰时段,拥堵程度达到80%。

洛杉矶的特点是低层建筑的存在。除了市中心,华纳中心,世纪城,韩国城,奇迹英里,好莱坞和韦斯特伍德等少数几个中心之外,摩天大楼和高层建筑并不常见。在这些区域之外建造的几座摩天大楼通常在周围其他景观之上脱颖而出。大多数施工是在单独的单元中完成的,而不是逐墙进行的。话虽这么说,洛杉矶市中心本身就有许多超过30层的建筑物,其中14层超过50层,还有2层超过70层(芝加哥以西最高的建筑物,请参阅洛杉矶最高建筑物清单)。同样,洛杉矶正越来越成为一个公寓城市,而不是单身家庭的城市,尤其是在人口稠密的市中心和西区附近。

地标

另请参阅:加利福尼亚洛杉矶国家历史名胜名录

洛杉矶的重要地标包括好莱坞标志,迪斯尼音乐厅,国会唱片大厦,天使圣母大教堂,天使飞行,TCL中国剧院,杜比剧院,格里菲斯天文台,盖蒂中心,盖蒂别墅,洛杉矶纪念体育馆,洛杉矶县艺术博物馆,威尼斯运河历史街区和木板路,主题馆,布拉德伯里大厦,美国银行大厦,威尔希尔大中心,好莱坞林荫大道,洛杉矶市政厅,好莱坞碗,战舰USS 爱荷华州,瓦茨塔,斯台普斯中心,道奇体育场和奥尔维拉街。

地形

洛杉矶盆地JPLLandsat

洛杉矶市总面积502.7平方英里(1,302公里2),占地468.7平方英里(1,214公里2)和34.0平方英里(88公里)2)的水。该城市纵向延伸44英里(71公里),横向扩展29英里(47公里)。该城市的周长为342英里(550公里)。

洛杉矶既平坦又丘陵。该市最高点是位于圣费尔南多谷(San Fernando Valley)东北端的5,074英尺(1,547 m)的卢肯斯山(Mount Lukens)。圣塔莫尼卡山脉的东端从市区延伸到太平洋,并将洛杉矶盆地与圣费尔南多谷隔开。洛杉矶的其他丘陵地区包括山。华盛顿市区以北的东部地区,例如博伊尔高地(Boyle Heights),鲍德温山(Baldwin Hills)周围的克伦肖(Crenshaw)地区和圣佩德罗(San Pedro)地区。

这座城市周围是更高的山脉。紧靠北部的是圣加百列山(San Gabriel Mountains),这是安杰列诺斯(Angelenos)受欢迎的休闲区。它的最高点是圣安东尼奥山(Mount San Antonio),当地人称巴尔迪山(Mount Baldy),达到10,064英尺(3,068 m)。在更远的地方,大洛杉矶地区的最高点是San Gorgonio Mountain,其高度为11,503英尺(3,506 m)。

主要是季节性的洛杉矶河是主要的排水渠。陆军工程兵团将其拉直并衬砌在51英里(82公里)的混凝土中,充当防洪通道。这条河开始于城市的卡诺加公园区,从圣费尔南多谷向东沿着圣莫尼卡山脉的北边缘向东流动,向南穿过市中心,流向太平洋的长滩港海洋。较小的Ballona Creek流入Playa del Rey的圣塔莫尼卡湾。

植被

洛杉矶拥有丰富的本地植物物种,部分原因是其栖息地的多样性,包括海滩,湿地和山脉。最普遍的植物群落是沿海鼠尾草灌木丛,丛林灌木丛和河岸林地。本地植物包括:加州罂粟,菊苣罂粟,toyon,Ceanothus,Chamise,Coast Live Oak,美国梧桐,柳树和Giant Wildrye。这些本地物种中的许多物种,例如洛杉矶向日葵,已经变得如此稀有,以至于被认为濒临灭绝。尽管它不是该地区的原生动物,但洛杉矶的官方树是珊瑚树(刺桐),而洛杉矶的官方花是“天堂鸟”(鹤望兰)。墨西哥扇棕榈,加那利岛棕榈,皇后棕榈,枣棕榈和加利福尼亚扇棕榈在洛杉矶地区很常见,尽管只有后者是当地人。

地质学

洛杉矶因其位于太平洋火环上而遭受地震袭击。地质失稳造成了许多断层,虽然每年发生的地震规模很小,以至于无法感觉到,但每年在南加州造成大约10,000次地震。走滑的圣安德烈亚斯断层系统位于太平洋板块与北美板块之间的边界,易受“大地震”的影响,这是一个潜在的大破坏性事件。洛杉矶盆地和大都市地区也面临盲目推力地震的威胁。袭击洛杉矶地区的主要地震包括1933年的长滩,1971年的圣费尔南多,1987年的惠提尔海峡和1994年的北岭大地震。但是,除了少数几个以外,其他所有的强度都很低并且没有感觉到。 USGS已发布了UCERF加利福尼亚地震预报,该地震预报模拟了加利福尼亚发生的地震。该市的部分地区也容易遭受海啸袭击; 1960年瓦尔迪维亚地震造成的海浪破坏了港口地区。

气候

主页:洛杉矶的气候

麦克阿瑟公园6

西湖麦克阿瑟公园。由于气候,棕榈树在洛杉矶很常见

洛杉矶属地中海气候(柯本气候分类 Csb 在岸上, Csa 内陆地区),并且每年的降水量足以避免柯本 牛血清白蛋白 要么 k (半干旱气候)分类。洛杉矶全年阳光充沛,平均每年只有35天,每年降水量可测量。洛杉矶周围的沿海地区在温度范围和变化,日照时间以及年降水量水平上可与西班牙东南部的沿海地区如阿利坎特或埃尔切相媲美。

从4月,5月,6月和11月的一个月到7月,8月,10月的一个月的三天到一年中的12天内,沿海流域的温度超过90°F(32°C)。九月的五天。圣费尔南多谷和圣盖博谷地的温度要高得多。温度每天会有很大波动。在内陆地区,日平均最低气温与日平均最高气温之间的差异超过30°F(17°C)。海洋的年平均温度为63°F(17°C),从1月的58°F(14°C)到8月的68°F(20°C)。每年的日照时间总计超过3,000,从12月的每天平均7小时到7月的平均12小时。

洛杉矶地区还遭受典型的小气候现象的影响,导致彼此物理接近的温度出现极大变化。例如,圣塔莫尼卡码头的7月平均最高温度为75°F(24°C),而Canoga公园则为95°F(35°C)。与南加州大部分沿海地区一样,这座城市也遭受着春末夏初的天气现象,称为“六月阴雨”。这涉及早晨的阴天或多雾的天空,到午后时才开始晒太阳。

洛杉矶市中心平均每年降水量为14.93英寸(379毫米),主要发生在11月至3月之间,通常以中雨的形式出现,但有时在冬季暴风雨期间为强降雨。夏季通常是无雨的。南方或东部的潮湿空气很少会在夏末带来短暂的雷暴,尤其是在山区。沿海地区的降雨少一些,而内陆和山区的降雨多得多。多年的平均降雨量很少。通常的模式是逐年变化,一小段干旱年份为5-10英寸(130-250毫米)的干旱年份,其次是一到两年的湿润年份超过20英寸(510毫米)。湿年通常与太平洋的厄尔尼诺现象有关,而干年通常与较冷的水现象有关。一系列的雨天可能使洪水泛滥到低地,而泥石流则会使山丘滑坡,尤其是在野火烧毁了山坡之后。

在城市盆地和沿海地区,冰冻温度和降雪都极为罕见,市区站最后一次出现32°F(0°C)的读数是1979年1月29日;山谷地区几乎每年都会发生冰冻温度,而城市范围内的山脉通常每个冬天都会降雪。 1932年1月15日,洛杉矶市中心记录的最大降雪量为2.0英寸(5厘米)。2010年9月27日,在官方的市中心车站,记录的最高气温为113°F(45°C),而最低的1949年1月4日,温度为28°F(−2°C)。在秋天和冬季,圣安娜风有时会给洛杉矶带来更加温暖和干燥的天气,并增加野火危险。

环境问题

洛杉矶污染

烟雾笼罩的洛杉矶景色

该地区的加百列利诺定居点 iyáangẚ (书面 杨娜 由西班牙人),已被翻译为“毒橡树的地方”。 杨娜 也被翻译成“烟谷”。由于地理位置,对汽车的高度依赖以及洛杉矶/长滩港口综合体的影响,洛杉矶遭受了烟雾形式的空气污染。洛杉矶盆地和圣费尔南多河谷易受大气倒置的影响,大气倒置存在于公路车辆,飞机,机车,运输,制造和其他来源的废气中。

烟雾季节持续约5月至10月。虽然其他大城市依靠雨水来清除烟雾,但洛杉矶每年只有15英寸(380毫米)的雨水:污染连续许多天不断累积。洛杉矶和其他主要城市的空气质量问题导致早期的国家环境立法(包括《清洁空气法》)获得通过。最近,加利福尼亚州率先通过强制要求低排放车辆来限制污染。预计烟雾将在未来几年内继续下降,这是因为采取了降低烟雾的积极措施,包括电动和混合动力汽车,公共交通的改善以及其他措施。

洛杉矶的第1阶段烟雾警报数量已从1970年代的每年100多个下降到新千年的几乎为零。尽管有所改善,但美国肺脏协会(American Lung Association)在2006年和2007年的年度报告中将该城市评为美国污染最严重的城市,其中短期颗粒物污染和全年颗粒物污染。在2008年,该市被列为污染第二高的城市,并且再次是全年污染物排放最高的城市。到2010年,纽约市实现了其20%的电力来自可再生能源的目标。美国肺脏协会(American Lung Association)在2013年的调查中将大都会区列为全美雾霾最严重的地区,短期和全年污染量均排名第四。

从1878年到2005年,气候变化已经影响了洛杉矶,平均气温上升了4度,加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)的一项研究预测,沿海地区的气温将上升3至4度,城市地区将上升4至4.5度。 2014年,南加州的大火季节从未结束,研究预测,到本世纪末,气候变化将导致更频繁,更大范围的火灾。预计气候变化还将影响海平面,从2000年到2050年,海平面预计将上升5至24英寸,从而导致更高的风暴潮和海浪,这可能导致更广泛的洪水泛滥,从而威胁到关键的沿海基础设施。

洛杉矶还是美国最大的城市油田所在地。在城市的房屋,教堂,学校和医院的1,500英尺范围内,有700多个活跃的油井,EPA对此表示了严重关注。

客层

洛杉矶县高收入家庭的分布

洛杉矶县人口普查区收入超过15万美元的家庭的百分比。

历史人口
人口普查 流行音乐 %±
1850年 1,610
1860年 4,385 172.4%
1870年 5,728 30.6%
1880年 11,183 95.2%
1890年 50,395 350.6%
1900年 102,479 103.4%
1910年 319,198 211.5%
1920年 576,673 80.7%
1930年 1,238,048 114.7%
1940年 1,504,277 21.5%
1950年 1,970,358 31.0%
1960年 2,479,015 25.8%
1970 2,811,801 13.4%
1980 2,968,528 5.6%
1990 3,485,398 17.4%
2000 3,694,820 6.0%
2010 3,792,621 2.6%
Est. 2015 3,971,883 4.7%
U.S. Decennial Census

The 2010 United States Census reported that Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621. The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km²). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.

There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009—at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km²), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

Race and ethnicity

Racial composition 2010 1990 1970 1940
Non-Hispanic White 28.7% 37.3% 61.1% 86.3%
Black or African American 9.6% 14.0% 17.9% 4.2%
Hispanic or Latino 48.5% 39.9% 17.1% 7.1%
Asian 11.3% 9.8% 3.6% 2.2%
Race and ethnicity 2010- Los Angeles (5560490330)

Map of racial distribution in Los Angeles, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WhiteBlackAsianHispanic 要么 Other (yellow)

Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%).

Non-Hispanic whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. People of Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Latinos at 31.9% of Los Angeles' population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Latino population is spread throughout the city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area but it is most heavily concentrated in the East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Northwest Los Angeles regions, which has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community.

The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves−Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles' population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown. Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles' population, respectively. Japanese comprise 0.9% of L.A.'s population, and have an established Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is located in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles' population. Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population.

The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to a large Middle Eastern population, including Armenians and Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia and Tehrangeles.

See also: African-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles

African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South LA with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square and Watts. Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, such as Mid-City, Mid-Wilshire and Arlington Heights has a moderate-to-high concentration of African Americans as well. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 17.9% black, 61.1% non-Hispanic white and 17.1% Hispanic.

Religion

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Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels is the mother cathedral for the Los Angeles archdiocese.

Los Angeles Temple 1

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%). The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country. Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in downtown Los Angeles. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.

In 2011 the once common but ultimately lapsed custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honour of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781 was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support and approbation of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses which commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States. Many of Los Angeles' Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights and Northwest Los Angeles once had large Jewish populations. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades. (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.) The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city.

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1927 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, when built, was one of the largest churches in the country.

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first LDS temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.

The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology.

Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt.

文化

Oscar1 (2)

Walt Disney Concert Hall, LA, CA, jjron 22.03.2012

Main page: Arts and culture of Los Angeles

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in history.

Movies and the performing arts

The city's Hollywood neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the motion picture industry. Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards and is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States.

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles' cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.

Museums and galleries

See also: Los Angeles City Museums
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</div>
</div>
<p>There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County. In fact, Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the larger J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are located on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.</p>
<h2><span class=Transportation

Main page: Transportation in Los Angeles

Freeways

Los Angeles - Echangeur autoroute 110 105

The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, connecting the Century Freeway (I-105) and the Harbor Freeway (I-110).

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, (each with 60 hours of delay). Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles' mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C.

Among the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts.

Transit systems

Main page: Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Liner map

Current Los Angeles Metro Rail and Metro Transitway map, showing existing lines

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation.

The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's second busiest. The rail system includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold, Blue, Expo, and Green light rail lines. In 2016, the Expo Line was extended to the Pacific at Santa Monica. The Metro Orange and Silver lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs.

Los Angeles (California, USA), Union Station -- 2012 -- 4938

Union Station in Los Angeles, California

Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown.

In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT.

Airports

Main page: List of airports in the Los Angeles area

LAX LA

The Theme Building at Los Angeles Airport

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX), commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX。 The sixth busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled over 66 million passengers and close to 2 million tons of cargo in 2013.

Other major nearby commercial airports include:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) LA/Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Los Angeles; serves the Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bob Hope Airport, formerly known as Burbank Airport; serves the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) John Wayne Airport of Orange County

One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY)。

Seaports

Vincent Thomas Bridge aerial view

The Port of Los Angeles is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km2) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor。 Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008. Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container ports in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States – The Port of Los Angeles' World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014.

There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles' coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.

Twin towns and sister cities

Los Angeles City Hall with sister cities 2006

A sign near City Hall points to the sister cities of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined:

  • Israel" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/21px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png" width="21" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/32px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg/41px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png 2x"/></span> Eilat, Israel (1959)</li>
<li><span class=Japan" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/23px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/35px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/45px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 2x"/></span> Nagoya, Japan (1959)</li>
<li><span class=Brazil" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/33px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/43px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png 2x"/></span> Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1962)</li>
<li><span class=法国” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg/23px-Flag_of_France.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg/35px-Flag_of_France.svg.png 1.5x,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c /c3/Flag_of_France.svg/45px-Flag_of_France.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Bordeaux, France (1964)</li>
<li><span class=Germany" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/23px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/35px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/46px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 2x"/></span> Berlin, Germany (1967)</li>
<li><span class=Zambia" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/06/Flag_of_Zambia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Zambia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/06/Flag_of_Zambia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Zambia.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/06/Flag_of_Zambia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Zambia.svg.png 2x"/></span> Lusaka, Zambia (1968)</li>
<li><span class=Mexico" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/23px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png" width="23" height="13" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/35px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/46px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png 2x"/></span> Mexico City, Mexico (1969)</li>
<li><span class=New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand (1971)
  • South Korea Busan, South Korea (1971)
  • India" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/23px-Flag_of_India.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/35px-Flag_of_India.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/45px-Flag_of_India.svg.png 2x"/></span> Mumbai, India (1972)</li>
<li><span class=Iran" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/23px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png" width="23" height="13" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/35px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg/46px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png 2x"/></span> Tehran, Iran (1972)</li>
<li><span class=Republic of China Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1979)
  • 中华人民共和国 Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (1981)
  • Greece" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/23px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/35px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg/45px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png 2x"/></span> Athens, Greece (1984)</li>
<li><span class=俄罗斯” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f /f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984)</li>
<li><span class=加拿大” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg/23px-Flag_of_Canada.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 12” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg/35px-Flag_of_Canada.svg.png 1.5x,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/c /cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg/46px-Flag_of_Canada.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1986)</li>
<li><span class=Egypt" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/23px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/35px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/45px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png 2x"/></span> Giza, Egypt (1989)</li>
<li><span class=Indonesia" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 2x"/></span> Jakarta, Indonesia (1990)</li>
<li><span class=Lithuania" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/23px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/35px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg/46px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png 2x"/></span> Kaunas, Lithuania (1991)</li>
<li><span class=Philippines" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png 2x"/></span> Makati, Philippines (1992)</li>
<li><span class=Croatia" src="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png 1.5x, https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png 2x"/></span> Split, Croatia (1993)</li>
<li><span class=El Salvador San Salvador, El Salvador (2005)
  • 黎巴嫩” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/23px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/35px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/5 /59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg/45px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Beirut, Lebanon (2006)</li>
<li><span class=意大利” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/23px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 15” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/35px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/0 /03/Flag_of_Italy.svg/45px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Ischia, Campania, Italy (2006)</li>
<li><span class=亚美尼亚” src =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png” width =“ 23” height =“ 12” class =“ thumbborder” srcset =“ https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png 1.5倍,https://kids.kiddle.co/images/thumb/2 /2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png 2x“ /></span> Yerevan, Armenia (2007)</li>
</ul>
</div>
<p>In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities":</p>
<h2><span class=儿童图片

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