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里约热内卢
力拓
市政府
里约热内卢的穆尼皮皮奥
里约热内卢市
Rio Collage.png

从顶部顺时针旋转:里约市中心的建筑物全景;的雕像 基督救世主 在科尔科瓦多面包山与Botafogo的海滩;巴拉达蒂茹卡(Barra da Tijuca)海滩,背景为Pedra daGávea;明天博物馆在毛塔广场和圣特雷莎背景和电车的里约–尼泰罗伊大桥。
里约热内卢的旗帜
里约热内卢的徽章
徽章
昵称: Cidade Maravilhosa (奇妙的城市) 马拉维侯萨公主 (奇迹公主) Cidade dos Brasileiros (巴西人之城)
地点在里约热内卢州
地点在里约热内卢州
国家 巴西
区域 东南
班德拉·埃斯塔多·里约热内卢·贾内罗·巴西2.svg 里约热内卢
历史悠久的国家 葡萄牙王国
葡萄牙,巴西和Algarves.svg的旗帜 葡萄牙,巴西和阿尔加维斯联合王国
成立时间 1565年3月1日
区域
•市政 1,221公里2 (486.5平方英里)
•地铁 4,539.8公里2 (1,759.6平方英里)
海拔 从0到1,020米(从0到3,349英尺)
人口 (2015年)
•市政 6,688,930
•等级 第二名
•城市 11,616,000
•地铁 12,280,702(第二)
•都市密度 2,705.1 /公里2 (7,006 /平方英里)
假名 卡里奥卡(Carioca)和瓜纳巴里诺(Guanabarino)(a)(由前城市州淘汰)
时区 BRT(UTC-3)
邮政编码 20000-000
区号 +55 21
网站 费城
类型: 文化
条件:
指定: 2012年 (第三十六届会议)
缔约国: 巴西
拉丁美洲和欧洲

里约热内卢 或简单地 力拓,是巴西里约热内卢大都市区和人口第二大的直辖市,在美洲人口第六大的直辖市。里约热内卢是巴西第三大人口大国里约热内卢州的首府。该城市的一部分已被指定为世界遗产,名称为“里约热内卢:山与海之间的卡里奥卡景观”,联合国教科文组织于2012年7月1日将其列为文化景观。

该城市由葡萄牙人于1565年建立,最初是葡萄牙帝国领土里约热内卢上尉的所在地。后来,在1763年,它成为巴西国(葡萄牙帝国的州)的首都。 1808年,葡萄牙皇家法院将自己从葡萄牙移交给巴西,里约热内卢成为葡萄牙玛丽亚一世女王法院的选定所在地,随后,玛丽亚一世在她的儿子摄政王的领导下,于1815年未来的葡萄牙国王若昂六世(JoãoVI)将巴西提升为葡萄牙,巴西和阿尔加维斯联合王国内的一个国家。里约一直是卢西塔尼亚君主制君主制的首都,直到1822年巴西独立战争开始。这是历史上为数不多的一个殖民地国家的首都正式移居其殖民地之一的城市的例子之一。里约热内卢随后一直担任巴西独立君主制的首都,直到1889年,再后来成为共和党巴西的首都,直到1960年首都移交给巴西利亚。

里约热内卢的城市GDP在该国排名第二,在2008年居世界第30位,估计约为3,430亿雷亚尔(IBGE,2008年)(近2,010亿美元)。它是巴西石油,矿业和电信公司的总部,其中包括巴西的两家主要公司-巴西国家石油公司(Petrobras)和淡水河谷(Vale),以及拉丁美洲最大的电信媒体集团Grupo Globo。它是许多大学和研究所的所在地,是巴西第二大研发中心,根据2005年的数据,它占国家科学产出的17%。尽管人们对犯罪有很高的认识,但该城市的犯罪发生率比巴西东北部要低,但比巴西南部地区(被认为是该国最安全)的犯罪率要高得多。

里约热内卢是南半球访问量最大的城市之一,以其自然环境,嘉年华,桑巴舞,波萨诺瓦新星和巴尔内里奥海滩(如巴拉达蒂茹卡,科帕卡巴纳,伊帕内玛和勒布隆)而闻名。除了海滩外,一些最著名的地标还包括 基督救世主 在科科瓦多山上,被誉为世界新七大奇观之一;甜面包山及其缆车;的 桑博德罗莫 (Sambadrome),嘉年华期间使用的永久性看台内衬游行队伍大道;以及世界上最大的足球场之一的马拉卡纳体育场。里约热内卢是2016年夏季奥运会和2016年夏季残奥会的主办城市,使该城市成为有史以来第一个承办该赛事的南美和葡萄牙语国家城市,也是第三次在南半球城市举办奥运会。马拉卡纳体育场举行了1950年和2014年FIFA世界杯,2013年FIFA联合会杯以及第15届泛美运动会的决赛。

历史

PalácioPedro Ernesto-西达德基金会

1565年3月1日,里约热内卢成立

尼古拉斯·安托万·陶奈

里约热内卢 实际上 从葡萄牙的露台上可以看到葡萄牙帝国的首都 圣安东尼奥修道院 (圣安东尼修道院),c。 1816年

Mapa da cidade do Rio de Janeiro

1820年里约热内卢市地图,然后是葡萄牙联合王国,巴西和阿尔加维斯的首都,葡萄牙法院移交给了巴西。

殖民时期

欧洲人于1502年1月1日第一次遇到瓜纳巴拉湾(因此,在里约热内卢,“一月河”号)是由葡萄牙探险队在探险家加斯帕·德莱莫斯的带领下进行的。据称,佛罗伦萨探险家亚美利哥·维斯普奇(Amerigo Vespucci)应观察员身份应国王曼努埃尔一世的邀请参加了这次探险。里约地区有图皮人,普里人,博托库多人和马克萨卡利人居住。

1555年,瓜纳巴拉湾的一个岛屿(现称维莱加格农岛)在法国海军上将尼古拉斯·杜兰德·德维莱加尼翁的领导下被500名法国殖民者占领。因此,维尔加格农在试图建立法国南极殖民地时在岛上建造了科利尼堡。

里约热内卢市由葡萄牙人于1565年3月1日建立,并命名为 里约热内卢圣塞瓦斯蒂安为了纪念圣塞巴斯蒂安,他是当时葡萄牙君主塞巴斯蒂安的同名和赞助人。 里约热内卢 是瓜纳巴拉湾的名字。直到18世纪初,这座城市一直受到法国海盗和海盗的袭击或入侵,例如让·弗朗索瓦·杜克莱尔(Jean-FrançoisDuclerc)和勒内·杜瓜伊·特鲁因(RenéDuguay-Trouin)。

在17世纪后期,仍然在糖业时代,班代兰特人在邻近的米纳斯吉拉斯州的州长中发现了黄金和钻石,因此,里约热内卢成为出口财富(除糖以外的黄金,宝石)的实用港口。巴伊亚州萨尔瓦多,东北偏远。 1763年1月27日,葡萄牙美国殖民地政府从萨尔瓦多移至里约热内卢。直到1808年,这座城市仍是主要的殖民地首府,当时葡萄牙王室和大多数与之相关的里斯本贵族从拿破仑入侵葡萄牙逃亡,搬到了里约热内卢。

葡萄牙法院和帝国首都

王国的首都被转移到该城市,因此成为欧洲以外的唯一欧洲首都。由于没有物理空间或城市结构来容纳数百名突然来到的贵族,因此许多居民被简单地逐出家园。在最初的几十年中,创建了一些教育机构,例如军事学院,皇家科学,工艺美术学院和帝国美术学院,以及巴西国家图书馆-在拉丁美洲拥有最大的馆藏–和植物园。巴西第一本印刷报纸 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro,在此期间开始流通。当巴西在1815年升格为王国时,它成为葡萄牙,巴西和阿尔加维斯联合王国的首都,直到1821年葡萄牙王室回到里斯本,但仍然是巴西王国的首都。

从殖民时期到独立的第一个十年,里约热内卢是一个奴隶之城。非洲奴隶大量涌入里约热内卢:1819年,该州有145,000名奴隶。 1840年,奴隶的数量达到了22万人。里约热内卢港口是美国最大的奴隶港口。

佩德罗亲王于1822年宣布巴西独立时,他决定保留里约热内卢为新帝国的首都,而该省则在坎波斯地区种植甘蔗,尤其是在帕拉伊巴种植新的咖啡谷。为了使该省与帝国首都分离,该市于1834年改建为中立市,通过里约热内卢省,将尼泰罗伊作为首都。

1869年的Botafogo湾

1889年的Botafogo湾

作为该国的政治中心,里约热内卢集中了帝国的政治游击队生活。这是19世纪下半叶废奴运动和共和主义运动的主要阶段。那时,非洲奴隶的数量大大减少,城市得到发展,有了现代排水沟,动物电车,穿越城市的火车站,煤气和电照明,电话和电报线路,水和河道。 1889年,君主立宪制由共和国取代后,里约继续成为巴西的首都。

1889年2月6日,以巴西工业进步公司(巴西的Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil)的名称成立了Bangu纺织厂。该工厂于1893年3月8日正式开业,其建筑群具有不同的建筑风格,例如意大利风格,新哥特式风格和Mansard Roof风格的塔楼。 1893年开业后,来自英国的工人来到班古在纺织厂工作。旧农场变成了带有红砖房的工人村庄,并创建了一座新哥特式教堂,至今仍作为圣塞巴斯蒂安教堂和圣塞西莉亚教区教堂存在。街头电影院和文化建筑也出现了。 1894年5月,来自苏格兰Busby的英国工人Thomas Donohoe抵达班古。

多诺霍震惊地发现巴西人对足球一无所知。因此,他写信给妻子伊丽莎白(Elizabeth),要求她在加入妻子时带来足球。 1894年9月,她抵达后不久,在巴西的第一场足球比赛就在纺织工厂旁边的田野举行。这场比赛是英国工人之间的一场五人制比赛,比查尔斯·米勒在圣保罗组织的第一场比赛早了六个月。但是,直到1904年,班古足球俱乐部才正式成立。

共和时期

里约热内卢ca1910s美国国会图书馆19301u的照片

Bondinho Rio 1940年

1940年代至1950年代之间的Sugarloaf缆车

坦克斯(Tanques)杯,Avenida Presidente Vargas,1968-04-04

1968年军事统治期间,沿着城市街道的坦克车队。当时,里约热内卢是瓜纳巴拉州的首府

在建立巴西的旧共和国时期,该城市缺乏城市规划和卫生设施,这有助于传播多种疾病,例如黄热病,痢疾,天花,结核病甚至黑人死亡。佩雷拉·帕索斯(Pereira Passos)于1902年被任命为市长,他进行了改革以使这座城市现代化,摧毁了大多数贫困人口居住的科尔蒂索斯岛。这些人大多是奴隶的后代,然后搬到城市的山丘上生活,创建了第一批贫民窟。受巴黎市的启发,Passos在城市中心建立了市政剧院,国家美术馆和国家图书馆。为里约热内卢带来了电力,并创造了更大的途径使这座城市适应汽车。 Passos还任命Oswaldo Cruz博士为公共卫生总监。克鲁兹(Cruz)清洁疾病之城的计划包括对全体人口强制接种疫苗,并强迫他们进入房屋以杀死蚊子和老鼠。城市居民反对克鲁兹的政策,即所谓的疫苗起义。

在1910年,里约(Rio)看到了鞭子的起义,巴西海军的非洲裔巴西船员反叛了体罚,这种体罚类似于奴隶受到的惩罚。叛变者控制了战舰 米纳斯·格拉斯(Minas Geraes) 并威胁要向这座城市开火。另一场军事起义发生于1922年,是科帕卡巴纳堡发动的18起叛乱,是对旧共和国的冠冕主义和咖啡馆综合政治的游行。这次起义标志着Tenentism的开始,这一运动导致1930年的巴西革命开始了Vargas时代。

直到20世纪初,这座城市基本上只限于瓜纳巴拉湾口附近的历史悠久的市中心(见下文)。 20世纪初期,该市的重心开始向南和向西转移到所谓的Zona Sul(南部地区),当时在Botafogo和附近的山区之间修建了第一条隧道,现在被称为科帕卡巴纳。 1905年后,里约有轨电车运输系统的整合和电气化促进了城市向北和向南的扩展。博塔福戈的自然环境与科帕卡巴纳皇宫酒店的名气相结合, 1930年代美洲豪华酒店帮助Rio赢得了今天仍然是海滩派对小镇的声誉(尽管近年来这种声誉因麻醉品交易引起的贫民窟暴力而受到损害)。

偶尔讨论了将该国首都从里约热内卢迁至巴西中部的计划,当朱塞利诺·库比契克(Juscelino Kubitschek)在1955年当选总统时,部分原因是建立新首都的承诺。尽管许多人认为这只是竞选言论,但库比契克还是在1960年之前付出了高昂的代价建立了巴西利亚和新的联邦区。同年4月21日,巴西首都正式移至巴西利亚。在与东部接壤的海湾之后,原联邦区的领土变成了自己的州瓜纳巴拉(Guanabara),仅涵盖里约热内卢市。在1964年政变建立军事独裁统治之后,这个城市国家是巴西剩下的唯一反对军事的国家。然后,在1975年,一项名为“融合”的总统令取消了该市的联邦地位,并与里约热内卢州合并,里约热内卢市取代尼泰罗伊成为该州的首府,并建立了里约热内卢大都市区。

1992年,里约主办了地球首脑会议,这是联合国与环境恶化作斗争的一次会议。二十年后的2012年,该市主办了另一次可持续发展大会,名为联合国可持续发展大会。该市于2013年举办了世界青年日,这是南美洲第二个世界青年日,巴西是第一届世界青年日。在体育领域,里约热内卢是2007年泛美运动会和2014年FIFA世界杯决赛的主办国。 2009年10月2日,国际奥委会宣布里约热内卢将击败竞争对手芝加哥,东京和马德里,主办2016年奥运会和2016年残奥会。该市成为第一个承办该赛事的南美城市和第二个承办奥运会的拉丁美洲城市(仅次于1968年的墨西哥城)。

2013年里约热内卢在晚上。

地理

里约热内卢,卫星图像,LandSat-5,2011-05-09(裁剪)

里约热内卢(Rio de Janeiro)位于巴西大西洋沿岸的最西端(科斯塔佛得角(Costa Verde)东至伊利亚格兰德(Ilha Grande)海峡和卡波弗里奥(Cabo Frio)海峡之间),靠近热带摩Cap座,那里的海岸线向东西方。这座城市大部分面朝南部,位于这条海岸的瓜纳巴拉湾(Baíade Guanabara)的入口处,入口处有一块叫作Sugar Loaf(PãodeAçúcar)的土地–“名片”城市的。

中心(Centro)是里约(Rio)的核心,位于瓜纳巴拉湾(Guanabara Bay)西海岸的平原上。城市的大部分地区,通常称为北部地区(里约热内卢,佐纳市北部) (点)),在由海洋和大陆沉积物组成的平原上,以及在丘陵和几座落基山脉上,向西北延伸。该市的南部区域(Zona Sul)到达了公海边缘的海滩,与中心和北部区域之间的海岸山脉被切断。这些山脉和丘陵是塞拉多马尔(Serra do Mar)西北部的分支,古老的片麻岩-花岗岩山脉形成了巴西高地的南坡。到20世纪末,新的道路和隧道使南部地区的人们更容易进入大面积的西部地区(Zona Oeste),长期被山区地形割断。

里约热内卢市的人口约为1,000,000,面积为1,182.3平方公里(456.5平方英里)。大都市区的人口估计为11–13,500,000。这座城市的居民被称为 卡里奥卡斯。里约的官方歌曲是作曲家安德烈·菲略(AndréFilho)创作的“ Cidade Maravilhosa”。

公园

Parque Lage与科尔科瓦多在背景中

植物园的拱门

罗德里戈·德·弗雷塔斯泻湖

该市拥有公园和生态保护区,例如蒂茹卡国家公园,世界上第一个城市森林和联合国教科文组织环境遗产与生物圈保护区;佩德拉布兰卡州立公园,位于里约热内卢的最高点,佩德拉布兰卡的顶峰; Quinta da Boa Vista建筑群;植物园;里约动物园; Parque Lage;以及PasseioPúblico,这是美洲第一个公园。此外,弗拉门戈公园(Flamengo Park)是该市最大的垃圾填埋场,从市中心延伸到南部地区,除了许多植被外,还拥有博物馆和纪念碑。

环境

由于大都市地区的产业高度集中,该市面临着严重的环境污染问题。瓜纳巴拉湾(Guanabara Bay)失去了红树林区,并遭受了生活和工业污水,石油和重金属的残留。尽管它的水到达大海时会更新,但海湾是沿其河岸以及流入其中的许多河流和河流盆地产生的所有支流的最终接收者。空气中的颗粒物含量是世界卫生组织建议的两倍,部分原因是正在流通的车辆数量众多。

Sepetiba湾的水流缓慢地沿着瓜纳巴拉湾追踪的路径,未经处理的溪流或河流释放了约129万居民的污水。关于工业污染,多年来,圣塔克鲁兹,伊塔瓜伊和新伊瓜苏工业区的工厂在国家政策的监督下倾倒了高毒废物,其中含有高浓度的重金属(主要是锌和镉)。 。

Marapendi泻湖和Rodrigo de Freitas泻湖在当局的宽大处理和附近公寓楼数量的增长中遭受了损失。污水的秘密排放和藻类的扩散减少了水域的氧合作用,从而导致鱼类死亡。

另一方面,通过2008年建立的公私合营伙伴关系,泻湖中有去污迹象,以确保泻湖水最终适合沐浴。净化行动包括将污泥转移到泻湖本身中的大型火山口,并与海建立新的直接和地下连接,这将有助于增加两种环境之间的日常水交换。然而,在奥运会期间,泻湖举办了赛艇比赛,人们对人类污水造成的潜在感染有很多担忧。

里约热内卢市的全景图,突出显示了来自中国眺望楼的科尔科瓦多(左),舒格洛夫(中),两兄弟(右)的群山

气候

Vista do Morro Dona Marta

Botafogo与甜面包山

里约热内卢里约热内卢公园。

尼泰罗伊从里约热内卢的景色

Marina daGlória1

Marina daGlória的景色

里约属热带大草原气候(w)与热带季风气候(上午),根据科本气候分类,通常在12月到3月之间会有长时间的大雨。这个城市夏天炎热潮湿,冬天温暖明媚。在城市内陆地区,夏季温度通常高于40°C(104°F),尽管长期很少见,而每月最高温度可能超过27°C(81°F)。

沿海地区,陆上和海上吹来的微风调节了气温。由于其地理位置,从南极往来的冷锋经常到达该城市,尤其是在秋季和冬季,导致频繁的天气变化。在夏季,可能会出现强降雨,在某些情况下还会引发灾难性的洪水和山体滑坡。由于山区构成了对来自大西洋的潮湿风的屏障,因此降雨量更大。

据说这座城市过去曾有过罕见的霜冻,但从未果断地得到证实。里约热内卢州内的某些地区偶尔会掉落雪粒和冰块(通常称为 格兰尼佐,或称“冰雹”,尽管实际上它是融化并重新冷冻成冰雹形式的雪,而不仅仅是冰冷的雪)。这些现象在21世纪已经在大城市地区(包括城市本身的西郊)发生过几次,绝对不是罕见的或仅限于少数地区。

干旱非常罕见,尽管考虑到该市季节性强烈的热带气候,干旱有时会发生。 2014-2015年的巴西干旱在东南部地区最为严重,数十年来最严重,影响了整个都会区的供水(从南帕拉依巴河向关渡河的转移是该州人口最多的中部地区的主要来源)。计划在2014年的水危机期间将南帕拉伊巴州转移到西斯泰玛·坎塔雷拉(Cantareira系统),以帮助遭受严重干旱的大圣保罗地区。但是,将来是否有足够的降雨来向两个大都市地区供应自来水仅仅是推测性的。

大致位于与2012年3月,2013年2月至2013年3月以及2015年1月的假冰雹位置相对应的同一郊区(新伊瓜苏及周边地区,包括大坎普和班古的部分地区)(格兰尼佐)跌倒时,2011年1月出现了类似龙卷风的现象,这是该地区有记录的历史上的第一次,造成结构破坏和持久的停电,但没有死亡。世界气象组织建议,巴西,尤其是其东南部地区,必须为不久的将来日益严峻的天气事件做好准备,因为诸如灾难性的2011年1月里约热内卢洪水和泥石流之类的事件并非孤立现象。 2013年5月上旬,风速超过90 km / h(56 mph)的风在该城市的15个街区和三个周边城市造成了停电,造成1人死亡。里约在2015年1月出现了类似的强风(约100 km / h(62英里/小时))。年平均最低气温为21°C(70°F),年平均最高气温为27°C(81°F),年平均气温为24°C(75°F)。年平均降水量为1,069毫米(42.1英寸)。

1架Leblon天线2014

Praia Vermelha vista do altoPãodeAçúcar

从舒格洛夫山看的Urca和Copacabana

温度还根据海拔,与海岸的距离以及植被或土地利用的类型而变化。在冬季,冷锋和拂晓/早晨的海风带来温和的气温。冷锋,热带辐合带(来自亚马逊森林的风),最强的海上风(通常来自热带气旋)和夏季蒸散带来阵雨或暴风雨。因此,季风般的气候具有干燥和温和的冬季和春季,以及非常潮湿和温暖的夏季和秋季。结果是,全年可能会发生超过40°C(104°F)的温度,但在夏季更常见,通常意味着当温度升高时实际温度超过50°C(122°F)。风少,相对湿度百分比高。

里约热内卢仅次于库亚巴,是巴西北部和东北部以外最热的巴西州首府。每年发生低于14°C(57°F)的温度,而低于11°C(52°F)的温度发生的频率降低。词组, 法泽弗里奥 (“变冷”,即“天气变冷”)通常是指温度低于21°C(70°F),全年可能会出现这种情况,在秋季中秋至冬季和冬季很常见。初春的夜晚。

1961年至1990年之间,在Saúde附近的INMET(巴西国家气象研究所)常规站,1977年10月的最低记录温度为10.1°C(50.2°F),最高记录温度为39°C( 1963年12月为102.2°F)。1962年1月,24小时内的最高累积降雨量为167.4毫米(6.6英寸)。但是,INMETJacarepaguá站的7月绝对最低温度为3.8°C(38.8°F)。 1974年,而圣克鲁斯站附近的绝对最大值是43.2°C(110°F),2012年12月26日,而圣特雷莎记录到24小时的最高累积降雨量为186.2毫米(7.3英寸)站于1967年4月。2011年7月,维拉米利塔尔(Vila Militar)发生了21世纪最低气温记录,为8.1°C(46.6°F)。

里约热内卢的气候数据
一月 二月 三月 四月 可以 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月
记录最高°C(°F) 40.9
(105.6)
41.8
(107.2)
41.0
(105.8)
39.3
(102.7)
36.3
(97.3)
35.9
(96.6)
34.9
(94.8)
38.9
(102)
40.6
(105.1)
42.8
(109)
40.5
(104.9)
43.2
(109.8)
43.2
平均高温(°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
29.4
(84.9)
27.8
(82)
26.4
(79.5)
25.2
(77.4)
25.0
(77)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
26.0
(78.8)
27.4
(81.3)
28.6
(83.5)
27.3
(81.1)
日平均°C(°F) 26.3
(79.3)
26.6
(79.9)
26.0
(78.8)
24.4
(75.9)
22.8
(73)
21.8
(71.2)
21.3
(70.3)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72)
22.9
(73.2)
24.0
(75.2)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
平均低温(°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
21.9
(71.4)
20.4
(68.7)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.9
(66)
19.2
(66.6)
20.2
(68.4)
21.4
(70.5)
22.4
(72.3)
21.0
(69.8)
记录最低°C(°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.9
(66)
18.6
(65.5)
16.2
(61.2)
11.1
(52)
11.6
(52.9)
12.2
(54)
10.6
(51.1)
10.2
(50.4)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
17.1
(62.8)
10.1
(50.2)
降雨毫米(英寸) 137.1
(5.398)
130.4
(5.134)
135.8
(5.346)
94.9
(3.736)
69.8
(2.748)
42.7
(1.681)
41.9
(1.65)
44.5
(1.752)
53.6
(2.11)
86.5
(3.406)
97.8
(3.85)
134.2
(5.283)
1,069.4
(42.102)
湿度 79 79 80 80 80 79 77 77 79 80 79 80 79.1
平均雨天 (≥1毫米) 11 7 8 9 6 6 4 5 7 9 10 11 93
日照时间 211.9 201.3 206.4 181.0 186.3 175.1 188.6 184.8 146.2 152.1 168.5 179.6 2,181.8
资料来源:巴西国家气象研究所(INMET)。

海洋的年平均温度为23–24°C(73–75°F),从7月至10月的22°C(72°F)到2月和3月的26°C(79°F)。主导的洋流是温暖的巴西洋流(与圣卡塔琳娜州和卡波弗里奥之间的桑托斯湾大部分其他地方一样;冷的亚南极马尔维纳斯洋流的地下部分仅会稍稍重新浮出水面,从而对后者产生影响,使该岛具有典型的半干旱气候Arraial的某些地区都进行Cabo,在整个州中只有这样)。最潮湿和最干燥的月份分别是一月和八月。

平均海水温度
一月 二月 三月 四月 可以 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月
25°C(77°F) 26°C(79°F) 26°C(79°F) 25°C(77°F) 24°C(75°F) 23°C(73°F) 22°C(72°F) 22°C(72°F) 22°C(72°F) 22°C(72°F) 23°C(73°F) 25°C(77°F) 24°C(75°F)

市区

里约热内卢大区锡达纳多

里约热内卢市政府及其地区和社区划分。

西区 北区 南区 中央区

这座城市通常分为历史中心(Centro);旅游友好的较富裕的南部地区(南佐纳);居住条件较差的北部地区(北区);西部地区(Zona Oeste)的外围地区,其中包括圣克鲁斯(Santa Cruz),格兰德(Campo Grande)和较富有的较新的巴拉达蒂茹卡(Barra da Tijuca)地区。

中央区

里约热内卢中央火车站

里约市中心的鸟瞰图

Centro或Downtown是城市的历史中心,也是其金融中心。名胜古迹包括在殖民时期建造的PaçoImperial,用作巴西葡萄牙总督的住所;许多历史悠久的教堂,例如坎德拉里亚教堂(前大教堂),圣何塞,圣卢西亚,诺萨·森霍拉·杜卡莫,圣丽塔,圣弗朗西斯科·德·波拉以及圣安托尼奥和圣本托的修道院。 Centro还设有现代化的混凝土里约热内卢大教堂。在Cinelândia广场周围,有几个地标 美女艾波克 里约热内卢,例如市政剧院和国家图书馆大楼。

在其几个博物馆中,最重要的是国家艺术博物馆(国家博物馆)和历史博物馆(国家历史博物馆)。里约市中心的其他重要历史景点还包括其18世纪的公共花园PasseioPúblico。主要街道包括里约布兰科大道(Avenida Rio Branco)和瓦尔加斯大道(Avenida Vargas),两者分别于1906年和1942年通过摧毁殖民城市的大片土地而建成。许多殖民地街道,例如Rua do Ouvidor和Uruguaiana,长期以来一直是行人专用区,而颇受欢迎的Saara购物区最近也已被行人专用区隔离。同样位于市中心的是称为Lapa的传统街区,这是一个重要的波西米亚风情,当地居民和游客都经常光顾。

卡里奥卡渡槽,也称为“ Arcos da Lapa”(拉帕拱门)

南区

科帕卡巴纳堡全景

科帕卡巴纳堡,依帕内玛(背景)和科帕卡巴纳(右)

Bondinho chegando noPãodeAçúcar

里约热内卢南部地区(佐纳·苏尔)由几个地区组成,其中圣保罗(SãoConrado),勒布朗(Leblon),依帕内玛(Ipanema),阿波多尔(Arpoador),科帕卡巴纳(Copacabana)和莱姆(Leme),构成了里约热内卢著名的地区 大西洋海滩海岸线。 Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Catete, Flamengo, Botafogo, and Urca, which border Guanabara Bay, and Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânico, and Gávea. It is the wealthiest part of the city and the best known overseas; the neighborhoods of Leblon and Ipanema, in particular, have the most expensive real estate in all of South America.

The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world's most spectacular New Year's Eve parties ("Reveillon"), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworks display. From 2001, the fireworks have been launched from boats, to improve the safety of the event.

To the north of Leme, and at the entrance to Guanabara Bay, is the district of Urca and the Sugarloaf Mountain ('Pão de Açúcar'), whose name describes the famous mountain rising out of the sea. The summit can be reached via a two-stage cable car trip from Praia Vermelha, with the intermediate stop on Morro da Urca. It offers views of the city second only to Corcovado mountain. Hang gliding is a popular activity on the Pedra Bonita (literally, "Beautiful Rock"). After a short flight, gliders land on the Praia do Pepino (Pepino, or "cucumber", Beach) in São Conrado.

Since 1961, the Tijuca National Park (Parque Nacional da Tijuca), the largest city-surrounded urban forest and the second largest urban forest in the world, has been a National Park. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro.

The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro or PUC-Rio), Brazil's top private university, is located at the edge of the forest, in the Gávea district. The 1984 film Blame It on Rio was filmed nearby, with the rental house used by the story's characters sitting at the edge of the forest on a mountain overlooking the famous beaches. In 2012, CNN elected Ipanema the best city beach in the world.

Rio as seen from Pão de Açúcar.

North Zone

Aerea2 maracana

Palácio de São Cristóvão

Palace of São Cristóvão, the former residence of the Emperors of Brazil, was the National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, at Quinta da Boa Vista, located in São Cristóvão imperial neighbourhood.

The North Zone (Zona Norte) begins at Grande Tijuca (the middle class residential and commercial bairro of Tijuca), just west of the city center, and sprawls for miles inland until Baixada Fluminense and the city's Northwest.

This region is home to the Maracanã stadium (located in Grande Tijuca), once the world's highest capacity football venue, able to hold nearly 199,000 people, as it did for the World Cup final of 1950. More recently its capacity has been reduced to conform with modern safety regulations and the stadium has introduced seating for all fans. Currently undergoing reconstruction, it has now the capacity for 90,000; it will eventually hold around 80,000 people. Maracanã was the site for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football competition of the 2007 Pan American Games; hosted the final match of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and the football matches of the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Besides Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also has other tourist and historical attractions, such "Nossa Senhora da Penha de França Church", the Christ the Redeemer (statue) with its stairway built into the rock bed, 'Manguinhos', the home of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorish palace, and the Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historic Imperial Palace is located. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specialising in Natural History, Archaeology, and Ethnology. The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim), the main campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio.

This region is also home to most of the samba schools of Rio de Janeiro such as Mangueira, Salgueiro, Império Serrano, Unidos da Tijuca, Imperatriz Leopoldinense, among others. Some of the main neighbourhoods of Rio's North Zone are Alto da Boa Vista which shares the Tijuca Rainforest with the South and Southwest Zones; Tijuca, Vila Isabel, Méier, São Cristovão, Madureira, Penha, Manguinhos, Fundão, Olaria among others. Many of Rio de Janeiro's roughly 1000 slums, or favelas, are located in the North Zone. The favelas resemble the slums of Paris, New York or other major cities in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and Europe, or similar neighborhoods in present underdeveloped countries.

West Zone

Colônia Juliano Moreira - Aqueduto dos Psicopatas

Aqueduct built in the 18th century, as was the entire historic complex of the Colônia Juliano Moreira inside Pedra Branca State Park in Taquara

West Zone (Zona Oeste) of Rio de Janeiro is a vaguely defined area that covers some 50% of the city's entire area, including Barra da Tijuca and Recreio dos Bandeirantes neighborhoods. The West Side of Rio has many historic sites because of the old "Royal Road of Santa Cruz" that crossed the territory in the regions of Realengo, Bangu, and Campo Grande, finishing at the Royal Palace of Santa Cruz in the Santa Cruz region. The highest peak of the city of Rio de Janeiro is the Pedra Branca Peak (Pico da Pedra Branca) inside the Pedra Branca State Park. It has an altitude of 1024m. The Pedra Branca State Park (Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca) is the biggest urban state park in the world comprising 17 neighborhoods in the west side, being a "giant lung" in the city with trails, waterfalls and historic constructions like an old aqueduct in the Colônia Juliano Moreira in the neighborhood of Taquara and a dam in Camorim. The park has three principal entrances: the main one is in Taquara called Pau da Fome Core, another entrance is the Piraquara Core in Realengo and the last one is the Camorim Core, considered the cultural heritage of the city.

Santa Cruz and Campo Grande Region have exhibited economic growth, mainly in the Campo Grande neighborhood. Industrial enterprises are being built in lower and lower middle class residential Santa Cruz, one of the largest and most populous of Rio de Janeiro's neighbourhoods, most notably Ternium Brasil, a new steel mill with its own private docks on Sepetiba Bay, which is planned to be South America's largest steel works. A tunnel called Túnel da Grota Funda, opened in 2012, creating a public transit facility between Barra da Tijuca and Santa Cruz, lessening travel time to the region from other areas of Rio de Janeiro.

Barra da Tijuca region

Praia da Barra e Montanhas do Parque Nacional da Tijuca

Barra da Tijuca with Pedra da Gávea at background

This is an elite area of the West Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It includes Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Vargem Grande, Vargem Pequena, Grumari, Itanhangá, Camorim and Joá. Westwards from the older zones of Rio, Barra da Tijuca is a flat complex of barrier islands of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which constantly experiences new constructions and developments. It remains an area of accelerated growth, attracting some of the richer sectors of the population as well as luxury companies. High rise flats and sprawling shopping centers give the area a far more modern feel than the crowded city centre.

The urban planning of the area, completed in the late 1960s, mixes zones of single-family houses with residential skyscrapers. The beaches of Barra da Tijuca are also popular with the residents from other parts of the city. One of the most famous hills in the city is the 842-metre-high (2,762-foot) Pedra da Gávea (Crow's nest Rock) bordering the South Zone. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Däniken in his 1973 book, In Search of Ancient Gods, claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometres around.

Demographics

Race and ethnicity in Rio de Janeiro
种族 Percentage
White 51.2%
Pardo (Multiracial) 36.5%
Black 11.5%
Asian 0.7%
Amerindian 0.1%

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 5,940,224 people residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The census revealed the following numbers: 3,239,888 White people (51.2%), 2,318,675 Pardo (multiracial) people (36.5%), 708,148 Black people (11.5%), 45,913 Asian people (0.7%), 5,981 Amerindian people (0.1%). The population of Rio de Janeiro was 53.2% female and 46.8% male.

In 2010, the city of Rio de Janeiro was the 2nd most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo.

Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.

Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal. After independence from Portugal, Rio de Janeiro became a destination for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Portugal, mainly in the early 20th century. The immigrants were mostly poor peasants who subsequently found prosperity in Rio as city workers and small traders. The Portuguese cultural influence is still seen in many parts of the city (and many other parts of the state of Rio de Janeiro), including architecture and language. Most Brazilians with some cultural contact with Rio know how to easily differentiate between the local dialect, fluminense, and other Brazilian dialects.

リオの幻想図書館 Real Gabinete Portugues de Leitura (8735773218)

The Royal Portuguese Cabinet of Reading. Rio de Janeiro is considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside Portugal.

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Portuguese immigrant in Rio de Janeiro.

People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. The Brazilian census of 1920 showed that 39.7% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil lived in Rio de Janeiro. Including all of the Rio de Janeiro, the proportion raised to 46.3% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil. The numerical presence of the Portuguese was extremely high, accounting for 72% of the foreigners who lived in the capital. Portuguese born people accounted for 20.4% of the population of Rio, and those with a Portuguese father or a Portuguese mother accounted for 30.8%. In other words, native born Portuguese and their children accounted for 51.2% of the inhabitants of Rio, or a total of 267,664 people in 1890.

Rio de Janeiro city (1890)
Group 人口 Percentage
Portuguese immigrants 106,461 20.4%
Brazilians with at least one Portuguese parent 161,203 30.8%
Portuguese immigrants and their descendants 267,664 51.2%

The black community was formed by residents whose ancestors had been brought as slaves, mostly from Angola and Mozambique, as well by people of Angolan, Mozambican and West African descent who moved to Rio from other parts of Brazil. The samba (from Bahia with Angolan influence) and the famous local version of the carnival (from Europe) first appeared under the influence of the black community in the city.

Today, nearly half of the city's population is by phenotype perceptibly black or part black. A large majority has some recent sub-Saharan ancestor. White in Brazil is defined more by having a European-looking phenotype rather than ancestry, and two full siblings can be of different "racial" categories in a skin color and phenotype continuum from pálidobranco) or fair-skinned, through branco moreno or swarthy Caucasian, mestiço claro or lighter skinned multiracial, pardo (mixed race) to negro or black. Pardo, for example, in popular usage includes those who are caboclos (mestizos), mulatos (mulattoes), cafuzos (zambos), juçaras (archaic term for tri-racials) and westernized Amerindians (which are called caboclos as well), being more of a skin color rather than a racial group in particular.

As a result of the influx of immigrants to Brazil from the late 19th to the early 20th century, also found in Rio de Janeiro and its metropolitan area are communities of Levantine Arabs who are mostly Christian or Irreligious, Spaniards, Italians, Germans, Japanese, Jews, and people from other parts of Brazil. The main waves of internal migration came from people of African, mixed or older Portuguese (as descendants of early settlers) descent from Minas Gerais and people of Eastern European, Swiss, Italian, German, Portuguese and older Portuguese-Brazilian heritage from Espírito Santo in the early and mid-20th century, together with people with origins in Northeastern Brazil, in the mid-to-late and late 20th century, as well some in the early 21st century (the latter more directed to peripheries than the city's core).

Genomic ancestry of non-related individuals in Rio de Janeiro
Race or skin color Number of individuals Amerindian African European
White 107 6.7% 6.9% 86.4%
Pardo (Mixed race) 119 8.3% 23.6% 68.1%
Black 109 7.3% 50.9% 41.8%

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2009, conducted on a school in the poor suburb of Rio de Janeiro, the "pardos" there were found to be on average about 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures. The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry. In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry on average reached 80% European. Other studies showed similar results

Self-reported ancestry of people from Rio de Janeiro, by race or skin color (2000 survey)
Ancestry White Pardo Black
European only 48% 6%
African only 12% 25%
Amerindian only 2%
African and European 23% 34% 31%
Amerindian and European 14% 6%
African and Amerindian 4% 9%
African, Amerindian and European 15% 36% 35%
Total 100% 100% 100%

Religion

Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Candelária - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

The Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, according to 2009 research from Fundação Getúlio Vargas (known as Novo Mapa das Religiões), ranks first in Brazil in the percentage of Catholics (51.1%) living there. Rio de Janeiro city also ranks fifth among Brazilian state capital cities in the percentage of its population that is irreligious (13.3%), barely changing since 2000 (the first-ranked, Boa Vista, has 21.2% irreligious). It is also the Brazilian state capital with the greatest percentage of Spiritists (now about 4–5%), and with substantial numbers in Afro-Brazilian religions and Eastern religions.

Urban challenges

1 rocinha night 2014 panorama

Rocinha slum (favela) at night

There are significant disparities between the rich and the poor in Rio de Janeiro, and different socioeconomic groups are largely segregated into different neighborhoods. Although the city clearly ranks among the world's major metropolises, large numbers live in slums known as favelas, where 95% of the population are poor, compared to 40% in the general population.

There have been a number of government initiatives to counter this problem, from the removal of the population from favelas to housing projects such as Cidade de Deus to the more recent approach of improving conditions in the favelas and bringing them up to par with the rest of the city, as was the focus of the "Favela Bairro" program and deployment of Pacifying Police Units.

Rio has more people living in slums than any other city in Brazil, according to the 2010 Census. More than 1,500,000 people live in its 763 favelas, 22% of Rio's total population. São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil, has more favelas (1,020) in sheer numbers, but proportionally has fewer people living in favelas than Rio.

Panoramic view of the complex of favelas called Complexo do Alemão, with about 70,000 inhabitants (2010). The image shows the lines of the cable car system between the stations.

经济

Aerial View of Flamengo 1

Downtown Rio, in the financial district of the city

Rio de Janeiro has the second largest GDP of any city in Brazil, surpassed only by São Paulo. According to the IBGE, it was approximately US$201 billion in 2008, equivalent to 5.1% of the national total.

The services sector comprises the largest portion of GDP (65.5%), followed by commerce (23.4%), industrial activities (11.1%) and agriculture (0.1%).

The off-shore oil exploration in the Campos Basin began in 1968 and became the main site for oil production of Brazil. This caused many oil and gas companies to be based in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian branches of Shell, EBX and Esso. For many years Rio was the second largest industrial hub of Brazil, with oil refineries, shipbuilding industries, steel, metallurgy, petrochemicals, cement, pharmaceutical, textile, processed foods and furniture industries.

Rio night

Aterro do Flamengo visto a partir do morro da Urca

Aterro do Flamengo at night with Downtown Rio in the background

Barra Panorama

Major international pharmaceutical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio such as: Merck, Roche, Arrow, Darrow, Baxter, Mayne, and Mappel.

A newer electronics and computer sector has been added to the more-established industries. Construction, also an important activity, provides a significant source of employment for large numbers of unskilled workers and is buoyed by the number of seasonal residents who build second homes in the Greater Rio de Janeiro area.

Rio is an important financial centre, second only to São Paulo in volume of business.

Tourism and entertainment are other key aspects of the city's economic life. The city is the nation's top tourist attraction for both Brazilians and foreigners.

Owing to the proximity of Rio's port facilities, many of Brazil's export-import companies are headquartered in the city.

Rio de Janeiro is (as of 2014) the second largest exporting municipality in Brazil. Annually, Rio exported a total of $7.49B (USD) worth of goods. The top three goods exported by the municipality were crude petroleum (40%), semi finished iron product (16%), and semi finished steel products (11%). Material categories of mineral products (42%) and metals (29%) make up 71% of all exports from Rio.

Compared to other cities, Rio de Janeiro's economy is the 2nd largest in Brazil, behind São Paulo, and the 30th largest in the world with a GDP of R$ 201,9 billion in 2010.

家庭亲子游

Cidade Maravilhosa

Museu do Amanhã 05

Rio de Janeiro is Brazil's primary tourist attraction and resort. It receives the most visitors per year of any city in South America with 2.82 million international tourists a year.

The city world-class hotels, like Belmond Copacabana Palace, approximately 80 kilometres of beaches and the famous Corcovado, Sugarloaf mountains and Maracanã Stadium.

The city is an important global LGBT destination, 1 million LGBT tourists visiting each year.

View of the city of Rio de Janeiro from Corcovado

Education

Palácio Universitário UFRJ

The Portuguese language is the official and national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official curriculum. There are also international schools, such as the American School of Rio de Janeiro, Our Lady of Mercy School, the Corcovado German School, the Lycée Français and the British School of Rio de Janeiro.

Educational institutions

Centro ciências humanas

Centre for Human Science of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro

Military Engineering Institute

Military Institute of Engineering

The city has several universities and research institutes. The Ministry of Education has certified approximately 99 upper-learning institutions in Rio. The most prestigious university is the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the fifth best in Latin America, and the second best in Brazil, second only to the University of São Paulo, the best in Latin America, according to the QS World University Rankings.

Some notable higher education institutions are: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ); Federal University of the Rio de Janeiro state (UNIRIO); Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ); Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, often nicknamed Rural); Fluminense Federal University (UFF); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio); Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV); Military Institute of Engineering (IME); Superior Institute of Technology in Computer Science of Rio de Janeiro (IST-Rio); College of Publicity and Marketing (ESPM); National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) and Federal Center of Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ). There are more than 137 upper-learning institutions in whole Rio de Janeiro state.

Educational system

Primary schools are largely under municipal administration, while the state plays a more significant role in the extensive network of secondary schools. There are also a small number of schools under federal administration, as is the case of Pedro II School, Colégio de Aplicação da UFRJ and the Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica of Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ). In addition, Rio has an ample offering of private schools that provide education at all levels. Rio is home to many colleges and universities. The literacy rate for cariocas aged 10 and older is nearly 95 percent, well above the national average.

The Rio de Janeiro State University (public), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (public), Brazilian Institute of Capital Markets (private) and Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (private) are among the country's top institutions of higher education. Other institutes of higher learning include the Colégio Regina Coeli in Usina, notable for having its own 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge funicular railway on its grounds.

In Rio, there were 1,033 primary schools with 25,594 teachers and 667,788 students in 1995. There are 370 secondary schools with 9,699 teachers and 227,892 students. There are 53 University-preparatory schools with 14,864 teachers and 154,447 students. The city has six major universities and 47 private schools of higher learning.

文化

MAM - Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro 02

Rio de Janeiro is a main cultural hub in Brazil. Its architecture embraces churches and buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th centuries, blending with the world-renowned designs of the 20th century. Rio was home to the Portuguese Imperial family and capital of the country for many years, and was influenced by Portuguese, English, and French architecture.

Rio de Janeiro has inherited a strong cultural role from the past. In the late 19th century, there were sessions held of the first Brazilian film and since then, several production cycles have spread out, eventually placing Rio at the forefront of experimental and national cinema. The Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival has been held annually since 1999.

Rio currently brings together the main production centers of Brazilian television. Major international films set in Rio de Janeiro include Blame it on Rio; the James Bond film Moonraker; the Oscar award-winning, critically acclaimed Central Station by Walter Salles, who is also one of Brazil's best-known directors; and the Oscar award-winning historical drama, Black Orpheus, which depicted the early days of Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro. Internationally famous, Brazilian-made movies illustrating a darker side of Rio de Janeiro include Elite SquadCity of God

Esculturas, Museu Nacional de Belas Artes 02

National Museum of Fine Arts

Rio has many important cultural landmarks, such as the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library), one of the largest libraries in the world with collections totalling more than 9 million items; the Theatro Municipal; the National Museum of Fine Arts; the Carmen Miranda Museum; the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden; the Parque Lage; the Quinta da Boa Vista; the Imperial Square; the Brazilian Academy of Letters; the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro; and the Natural History Museum.

Literature

After Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822, Rio de Janeiro quickly developed a European-style bourgeois cultural life, including numerous newspapers, in which most 19th-century novels were initially published in serial. Joaquim Manuel de Macedo's A Moreninha (1844) was perhaps the first successful novel in Brazil and inaugurates a recurrent 19th-century theme: a romantic relationship between idealistic young people in spite of cruelties of social fortune.

Academia brasileira de letras 2

Brazilian Academy of Letters

The first notable work of realism focusing on the urban lower-middle class is Manuel Antônio de Almeida's Memórias de um sargento de milícias (1854), which presents a series of picaresque but touching scenes, and evokes the transformation of a town into a city with suggestive nostalgia. Romantic and realist modes both flourished through the late 19th century and often overlapped within works.

The most famous author of Rio de Janeiro, however, was Machado de Assis, who is also widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature and considered the founder of Realism in Brazil, with the publication of The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas (1881). He commented on and criticized the political and social events of the city and country such as the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the transition from Empire to Republic with his numerous chronicles published in newspapers of the time. Many of his short stories and novels, like Quincas Borba (1891) and Dom Casmurro (1899), are placed in Rio.

The headquarters of the Brazilian Academy of Letters is based in Rio de Janeiro. It was satirized by the novelist Jorge Amado in Pen, Sword, Camisole。 Amado, himself, went on to be one of the 40 members of the Academy.

Libraries

National Library of Brazil

Royal Portuguese Cabinet of Reading

The Biblioteca Nacional (National Library of Brazil) ranks as one of the largest libraries in the world. It is also the largest library in all of Latin America. Located in Cinelândia, the National Library was originally created by the King of Portugal, in 1810. As with many of Rio de Janeiro's cultural monuments, the library was originally off-limits to the general public. The most valuable collections in the library include: 4,300 items donated by Barbosa Machado including a precious collection of rare brochures detailing the History of Portugal and Brazil; 2,365 items from the 17th and 18th centuries that were previously owned by Antônio de Araújo de Azevedo, the "Count of Barca", including the 125-volume set of prints "Le Grand Théâtre de l'Univers;" a collection of documents regarding the Jesuítica Province of Paraguay and the "Region of Prata;" and the Teresa Cristina Maria Collection, donated by Emperor Pedro II. The collection contains 48,236 items. Individual items of special interest include a rare first edition of Os Lusíadas by Luis de Camões, published in 1584; two copies of the Mogúncia Bible; and a first edition of Handel's Messiah.

The Real Gabinete Português de Leitura (Portuguese Royal Reading Library) is located at Rua Luís de Camões, in the Centro (Downtown). The institution was founded in 1837 by a group of forty-three Portuguese immigrants, political refugees, to promote culture among the Portuguese community in the then capital of the Empire. The history of the Brazilian Academy of Letters is linked to the Real Gabinete, since some of the early meetings of the Academy were held there.

Music

The official song of Rio de Janeiro is "Cidade Maravilhosa", which means "marvelous city". The song is considered the civic anthem of Rio, and is always the favourite song during Rio's Carnival in February. Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, are considered the centre of the urban music movement in Brazil.

"Rio was popularised by the hit song "The Girl from Ipanema", composed by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes and recorded by Astrud Gilberto and João Gilberto, Frank Sinatra, and Ella Fitzgerald. It is also the main key song of the bossa nova, a music genre born in Rio. A genre unique to Rio and Brazil as a whole is Funk Carioca. While samba music continues to act as the national unifying agent in Rio, Funk Carioca found a strong community following in Brazil. With its genesis in the 1970s as the modern black pop music from the United States, it evolved in the 1990s to describe a variety of electronic music associated with the current US black music scene, including hip hop, modern soul, and house music."

Brazil's return to democracy in 1985 after over 20 years of military authoritarian rule, and the subsequent end of rampant censorship, allowed for a new freedom of expression which promoted creativity and experimentation in expressive culture. Commercial and cultural imports from Europe and North America have often influenced Brazil's own cultural output. For example, the hip hop that has stemmed from New York is localized into forms of musical production such as Funk Carioca and Brazilian hip hop. Bands from Rio de Janeiro also had influence in the mid-to-late development of the Punk in Brazil, and that of Brazilian thrash metal. Democratic renewal also allowed for the recognition and acceptance of this diversification of Brazilian culture.

Theatre

Teatro Municipal - panoramio (4)

Municipal Theatre of Rio de Janeiro

Cidade das Artes by Diego Baravelli-08188

Rio de Janeiro's Theatro Municipal is one of the most attractive buildings in the central area of the city. Home of one of the largest stages in Latin America and one of Brazil's best known venues for opera, ballet, and classical music, the building was inspired by the Palais Garnier, home of the Paris Opera. Construction of the Theatro Municipal began in 1905 following designs of the architect Francisco Pereira Passos. The statues on the top, of two women representing Poetry and Music, are by Rodolfo Bernardelli, and the interior is rich with furnishings and fine paintings. Inaugurated in 1909, the Teatro Municipal has close to 1,700 seats. Its interior includes turn of the century stained glass from France, ceilings of rose-colored marble and a 1,000 pound crystal bead chandelier surrounded by a painting of the "Dance of the Hours". The exterior walls of the building are dotted with inscriptions bearing the names of famous Brazilians as well as many other international celebrities.

Cidade das Artes (City of Arts) is a cultural complex in Barra da Tijuca in the Southwest Zone of Rio de Janeiro, which was originally planned to open in 2004. Formally known as "Cidade da Música" (City of Music), it was finally inaugurated at the beginning of 2013. The project will host the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra becoming a main center for music as will be the largest modern concert hall in South America, with 1,780 seats. The complex spans approximately 90 thousand square metres (1 million square feet) and also features a chamber music hall, three theaters, and 12 rehearsal rooms. From the terrace there is a panoramic view of the zone. The building was designed by the French architect Christian de Portzamparc and construction was funded by the city of Rio de Janeiro.

大事记

New Year's Eve

Rio New Year Fireworks

New Year's Eve Fireworks at Copacabana Beach

Every 31 December, 2.5 million people gather at Copacabana Beach to celebrate New Year's in Rio de Janeiro. The crowd, mostly dressed in white, celebrates all night at the hundreds of different shows and events along the beach. It is the second largest celebration only next to the Carnival. People celebrate the New Year by sharing chilled champagne. It is considered good luck to shake the champagne bottle and spray around at midnight. Chilled champagne adds to the spirit of the festivities.

Rock in Rio

World Stage Rock in Rio 4

The World Stage at the "Rock in Rio" music festival

"Rock in Rio" is a music festival conceived by entrepreneur Roberto Medina for the first time in 1985, and since its creation, recognized as the largest music festival in the Latin world and the largest in the world, with 1.5 million people attending the first event, 700,000 attending the second and fourth, about 1.2 million attending the third, and about 350,000 people attending each of the 3 Lisbon events. It was originally organized in Rio de Janeiro, from where the name comes from, has become a world level event and, in 2004, had its first edition abroad in Lisbon, Portugal, before Madrid, Spain and Las Vegas, United States. The festival is considered the eighth best in the world by the specialized site Fling Festival.

Carnival

Banda de Ipanema

Banda de Ipanema, one of the largest carnival blocks of the city

Carnaval, is an annual celebration in the Roman Catholic tradition that allows merry-making and red meat consumption before the more sober 40 days of Lent penance which culminates with Holy or Passion Week and Easter. The tradition of Carnaval parades was probably influenced by the French or German courts and the custom was brought by the Portuguese or Brazilian Imperial families who had Bourbon and Austrian ancestors. Up until the time of the marchinhas, the revelry was more of a high class and Caucasian-led event. The influence of the African-Brazilian drums and music became more noticeable from the first half of the 20th century. Rio de Janeiro has many Carnaval choices, including the famous samba school (Escolas de Samba) parades in the sambadrome exhibition center and the popular blocos de carnaval, street revelry, which parade in almost every corner of the city. The most famous ones are:

  • Cordão do Bola Preta: Parades in the centre of the city. It is one of the most traditional carnavals. In 2008, 500,000 people attended in one day. In 2011, a record 2 million people attended the city covering three different metro stations.
  • Suvaco do Cristo: Band that parades in the Botanic Garden, directly below the Redeemer statue's arm. The name translates to 'Christ's armpit' in English, and was chosen for that reason.
  • Carmelitas: Band that was supposedly created by nuns, but in fact is just a theme chosen by the band. It parades in Santa Teresa, a bairro from where one can see extensive panoramas.
  • Simpatia é Quase Amor: One of the most popular parades in Ipanema. Translates as 'Friendliness is almost love'.
  • Banda de Ipanema: The most traditional in Ipanema. It attracts a wide range of revellers, including families and a wide spectrum of the LGBT/Queer population (notably drag queens).

In 1840, the first Carnaval was celebrated with a masked ball. As years passed, adorned floats and costumed revelers became a tradition among the celebrants. Carnaval is known as a historic root of Brazilian music.

Samba Parade at the Sambódromo (Sambadrome) during the Rio Carnival

Sports

Maracanã 2014 e

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Nilton Santos Olympic Stadium

Estádio de São Januário

Ilha do urubu

As in the rest of Brazil, association football is the most popular sport. The city's major teams are Flamengo, Vasco da Gama, Fluminense and Botafogo. Madureira, Bangu, Portuguesa, America and Bonsucesso are small clubs. Famous players born in the city include Ronaldo and Romário.

Rio de Janeiro was one of the host cities of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, for which on both occasions Brazil was the host nation. In 1950, the Maracanã Stadium hosted 8 matches, including all but one of the host team's matches. The Maracanã was also the location of the infamous tournament-deciding match between Uruguay and Brazil, where Brazil only needed a draw to win the final group stage and the whole tournament. Brazil ended up losing 2–1 in front of a home crowd of more than 199,000. In 2014, the Maracanã hosted seven matches, including the final, where Germany beat Argentina 1–0.

Football teams
Club League Venue Established (team)
Flamengo Série A Maracanã Stadium

78,838 (173,850 record)

1895年
Vasco da Gama Série A São Januário Stadium

24,880 (40,209 record)

1898年
Fluminense Série A Maracanã Stadium

78,838 (173,850 record)

1902
Botafogo Série A Nilton Santos Stadium

46,931 (43,810 record)

1894
Madureira Série D Estádio Aniceto Moscoso

5,400 (10,762 record)

1914
Bangu Série D Estádio Moça Bonita

9,564 (17,000 record)

1904
Portuguesa Série D Estádio Luso Brasileiro

15,000 (18,725 record)

1924
Bonsucesso Campeonato Carioca Leônidas da Silva Stadium

13,000 (13,571 record)

1913
America Campeonato Carioca Série B Edson Passos

13,544 (9,861 record)

1904

Olympics

Parque Olímpico Rio 2016 (cropped)

On 2 October 2009, the International Olympic Committee selected Rio de Janeiro to host the 2016 Summer Olympics. Rio made their first bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but lost to Berlin. They later made bids for the 2004 and 2012 Games, but failed to become a candidate city both times. Those games were awarded to Athens and London respectively.

Rio is the first Brazilian and South American city to host the Summer Olympics. Rio de Janeiro also became the first city in the southern hemisphere outside of Australia to host the games – Melbourne in 1956 and Sydney in 2000. In July 2007, Rio successfully organized and hosted the XV Pan American Games.

Rio de Janeiro also hosted the 2011 Military World Games from 15–24 July 2011. The 2011 Military World Games were the largest military sports event ever held in Brazil, with approximately 4,900 athletes from 108 countries competing in 20 sports.

Rio de Janeiro hosted the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics. The Olympic Games were held from 5 to 21 August 2016. The Paralympics were held from 7 to 18 September 2016.

Other sports

The city has a history as host of major international sports events. The Ginásio do Maracanãzinho was the host arena for the official FIBA Basketball World Championship for its 1954 and 1963 editions. Later, the Jacarepaguá circuit in Rio de Janeiro was the site for the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix from 1978 to 1989. Rio de Janeiro also hosted the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix from 1995 to 2004 and the Champ Car event from 1996 to 1999. WCT/WQS surfing championships were contested on the beaches from 1985 to 2001. The Rio Champions Cup Tennis tournament is held in the spring. As part of its preparations to host the 2007 Pan American Games, Rio built a new stadium, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. The stadium is owned by the city of Rio de Janeiro, but it was rented to Botafogo de Futebol e Regatas for 20 years. Rio de Janeiro has also a multi-purpose arena, the HSBC Arena.

Crianças jogando futebol de areia

Children playing beach football

The Brazilian Dance/Sport/Martial art Capoeira is very popular. Other popular sports are basketball, beach football, beach volleyball, Beach American Football, footvolley, surfing, kite surfing, hang gliding, motor racing, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, sailing, and competitive rowing. Another sport that is highly popular in beaches of Rio is called "Frescobol" (pronounced: (fɾe̞ɕko̞ˈbɔw)), a type of beach tennis. Rio de Janeiro is also paradise for rock climbers, with hundreds of routes all over the city, ranging from easy boulders to highly technical big wall climbs, all inside the city. The most famous, Rio's granite mountain, the Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar), is an example, with routes from the easy third grade (American 5.4, French 3) to the extremely difficult ninth grade (5.13/8b), up to 280 metres (919 feet).

Horse racing events are held Thursday nights and weekend afternoons at Hipódromo da Gávea. An impressive place with excellent grass and dirt tracks, it runs the best horses in the nation. Hang gliding in Rio de Janeiro started in the mid-1970s and quickly proved to be well-suited for this town, because of its geography: steep mountains encounter the Atlantic Ocean, which provide excellent take-off locations and great landing zones on the beach.

One of the most popular sea sports in the city is yachting. The main yacht clubs are in Botafogo area that extends halfway between Copacabana and the center of town. Though the most exclusive and interesting is probably the Rio Yacht club, where high society makes it a point to congregate. Most yacht clubs are open to members only and gate crashing is not easy. Copacabana is also a great place to do surfing as well as "Arpoador of Ipanema" beach and "Praia dos Bandeirantes". The sea at these beaches is rough and dangerous, the best surfers from Brazil and other sites of the world come to these beaches to prove themselves.

Transportation

Airports

The city of Rio de Janeiro is served by the following airports for use:

Airj aeroporto internacional do mundo rio de janeiro - panoramio

Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport

Santos Dumont by Diego Baravelli

Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont National Airport

  • Galeão–Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport: used for all international and most of the domestic flights. Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to the city. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to 19 countries. It has a capacity to handle up to 30 million users a year in two passenger terminals. It is located 20 km (12 mi) from downtown Rio. The airport complex also has Brazil's longest runway at 4,000 m (13,123.36 ft), and one of South America's largest cargo logistics terminals. The airport is connected to the express bus service.
  • Santos Dumont Airport: used mainly by the services to São Paulo, some short and medium-haul domestic flights, and general aviation. Located on Guanabara Bay just a few blocks from the heart of downtown Rio, during the 1990s Santos-Dumont began to outgrow its capacity, besides diverging from its specialization on short-hop flights, offering routes to other destinations in Brazil. For this reason, in late 2004 Santos-Dumont returned to its original condition of operating only shuttle flights to and from Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, along with regional aviation. The passenger terminal has undergone extensive renovation and expansion, which increased its capacity to 9,9 million users a year. The airport is connected to the city light rail system (Rio de Janeiro Light Rail), which connects several transport systems to downtown.
  • Jacarepaguá-Roberto Marinho Airport: used by general aviation and home to the Aeroclube do Brasil (Brasil Flying club). The airport is located in the district of Baixada de Jacarepaguá, within the municipality of Rio de Janeiro approximately 30 km (19 mi) from the city center.

Military airports include:

  • Galeão Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase, sharing some facilities with Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport;
  • Santa Cruz Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase. Formerly called Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport, it was built by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. Today it is one of the most important Air Force Bases in Brazil;
  • Afonsos Air Force Base: One of the historical Brazilian Air Force airbases. It is also the location of the University of the Air Force (Universidade da Força Aérea), the Museu Aeroespacial, and where air shows take place.

Ports

Cruise Ship Costa Serena docked in Rio de Janeiro (city) - Feb. 2011

The Port of Rio de Janeiro is Brazil's third busiest port in terms of cargo volume, and it is the center for cruise vessels. Located on the west coast of the Guanabara Bay, it serves the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo. The port is managed by Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro. The Port of Rio de Janeiro covers territory from the Mauá Pier in the east to the Wharf of the Cashew in the north. The Port of Rio de Janeiro contains almost seven thousand metres (23 thousand feet) of continuous wharf and an 883-metre (2,897-foot) pier. The Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro administers directly the Wharf of the Gamboa general cargo terminal; the wheat terminal with two warehouses capable of moving 300 tons of grains; General Load Terminal 2 with warehouses covering over 20 thousand square metres (215 thousand square feet); and the Wharves of Are Cristovao with terminals for wheat and liquid bulk.

At the Wharf of Gamboa, leaseholders operate terminals for sugar, paper, iron and steel products. Leaseholders at the Wharf of the Cashew operate terminals for roll-on/roll-off cargoes, containers, and liquid bulk. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over seven million tons of cargo on almost 1700 vessels. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over two million tons of containerized cargo in almost 171 thousand TEUs. The port handled 852 thousand tons of wheat, more than 1.8 million tons of iron and steel, over a million tons of liquid bulk cargo, almost 830 thousand tons of dry bulk, over five thousand tons of paper goods, and over 78 thousand vehicles. In 2003, over 91 thousand passengers moved through the Port of Rio Janeiro on 83 cruise vessels.

Public transportation

Public transport map of Rio de Janeiro

In Rio de Janeiro, buses are the main form of public transportation. There are nearly 440 municipal bus lines serving over four million passengers every day, in addition to intercity lines. Although cheap and frequent, Rio's transportation policy has been moving towards trains and subway in order to reduce surface congestion and increase carrier capacity. Rio's public transportation service has been a target of many critics and the motive of the 2013's protests and manifestations that started in São Paulo and spread through the entire country. According to the people, the raise in the bus and subway fares are invalid, seeing that the amount charged is too high for the low quality of the services.

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Rio de Janeiro, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 95 min. 32% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 19 min, while 35% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 12.3 km, while 37% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.

Subway and urban trains

Rio de Janeiro has three subway lines (Metrô Rio) with 58 kilometres (36 mi) and 41 stations plus several commuter rail lines. Future plans include building a fourth subway line to Niterói and São Gonçalo, including an underwater tunnel beneath Guanabara Bay to supplement the ferry service currently there. The Metro is Rio's safest and cleanest form of public transport.

Urban train from SuperVia

Train of Rio de Janeiro Metro

The three lines serve the city seven days a week. The first line runs from General Osório in Ipanema to Uruguai Station in Tijuca. The second line runs from Botafogo, sharing ten stations with the first line, terminating at Pavuna in northern Rio. The third connects General Osório to Jardim Oceânico Station, in the Barra da Tijuca neighborhood, where the 2016 Olympic Games were held. The Metro runs services from 05:00 am to 12:00 midnight, Monday to Saturday, and from 07:00 am to 11:00 pm Sundays and public holidays. People can buy tickets for the Metro at train stations and can either buy single tickets or rechargeable cards. People can also buy tickets for the Metro at buses that make connect places far from the Metro. Integration with buses are possible in several forms, an integrated Metro and bus ticket for a single journey is available for some lines paying an additional fee and is known as an Integração Expressa (Express Integration) and Expresso Barra, the other possibility is taking the Metro na Superfície (Surface Metro) with no additional fee.

SuperVia connects the city of Rio with other locations in Greater Rio de Janeiro with surface trains. It has 8 lines and 270 kilometres (168 mi), with 102 stations.

Light rail

VLT Rio 07 2016 7746

Rio de Janeiro Light Rail in Downtown Rio.

In order to improve traffic in the central zone, the prefecture started the project "Porto Maravilha" (Marvelous Port), which foresees a modern tramway system. Its lines will connect the central business district to Santos Dumont Airport, the ferry station at XV Square, the Novo Rio terminal bus station at Santo Cristo, and the future high-speed rail Leopoldina station between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

In 2016, for the Olympic Games, the light rail system was inaugurated, with 28 km, 42 stations, distributed in 3 lines. The trams are the first in the world to use a combination of ground-level power supply (APS) and on-board supercapacitor energy storage (SRS), in order to eliminate overhead lines along the entire route.

总线

Rio 01 2013 TransOeste 5811

TransOeste Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

City buses cost about R$3.80 to ride. They come in both non-air conditioned (R$3.80) and air conditioned versions (R$3–R$5.40). The system may be relatively safe by day but less so at night. Integration of bus lines has been recently implemented, allowing users to take two non-air conditioned bus rides in two hours paying just one ticket. It is necessary to have a registered electronic card (the "Bilhete Único Carioca (BUC)") in order to benefit of this system.

Another type of local bus is called the "Frescão" (air-conditioned). These buses run several routes, the main being from Centro through Botafogo, Copacabana and Ipanema to Leblon (and vice versa), and from the International Airport to Barra, through the beach road. They are air conditioned – about 22 °C (72 °F) – more upscale/comfortable and cost between R$6.00–R$12.00. However, it is only available during weekdays. The buses also run more frequently during the rush hours in the morning and evening. Going in the direction of Centro (city center), the bus can be flagged down on the beach road (buses with plaques showing "Castelo").

Ferry

Barca Pão de Açúcar (4)

The most geographically close sister city to Rio that is on the other side of Guanabara Bay is Niterói. Many people who live in Niterói, as well its neighbouring municipalities São Gonçalo and Maricá, commute to Rio de Janeiro to study and work. There are several ferry services that operate between the Rio Centro (Praça XV) and Niterói (Centro and Charitas). There is a traditional boat as well as several "fast cat" hydrofoil boats. One of the city neighborhoods is Paquetá Island, which can only be accessed by ferryboats or hydrofoil boats. The ferryboat to Paquetá leaves every hour, from early in the morning until around midnight. There is also a ferry to Cocotá.

Tram

Rio de Janeiro has the oldest operating electric tramway in Brazil and South America, now mainly used by tourists and less by daily commuters. Santa Teresa Tram or bondinho, has been preserved both as a piece of history and as a quick, fun, cheap way of getting to one of the most quirky parts of the city.

Santa Teresa Tram is the oldest operating tram system in South America.

The tram station is near Cinelândia and the Municipal Theatre. Trams leave every half an hour between 6:00 am and 11:00 pm. A ticket is just Template:BRL0.60 (US$0.35), one way or return, and people pay as they pass through the barrier to the right of the entrance. The Santa Teresa Tram (known locally as the "bonde") in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro commenced electric operation in 1891, replacing horse-drawn trams and expanding the horse-drawn route. At this time the gauge was altered to 1,100 mm (43.31 in), which remains the case today. The tram cars which are currently in operation are Brazilian-built, are of the cross-bench open sided design, and are fitted with trolley poles.

After a derail occurred on 28 August 2011, which left seven dead, tram service was suspended to improve the system, and would be reopened in 2014, just before the 2014 FIFA World Cup but after postponements it was finally reopened in July 2015. While it is being improved, two lines costing Template:BRL0.60 carry passengers from Santa Teresa to Centro: SE014 and SE006.

Road transport

Rio de Janeiro Ponte Niteroi Aerea 102 Feb 2006

Driving in Rio de Janeiro, as in most large cities of Brazil, might not be the best choice because of the large car fleet. The city is served by a number of expressways, like Linha Vermelha, Linha Amarela, Avenida Brasil, Avenida das Américas and Avenida Infante Dom Henrique (Aterro do Flamengo); in spite of this, traffic jams are very common. Because of the organization of the 2016 Olympics the city is installing four BRT systems to link Barra da Tijuca with other major neighbourhoods: TransOlimpica (between Barra and Deodoro); TransBrasil (over the Avenida Brasil expressway); TransCarioca (between Barra and the Galeão International Airport); and TransOeste (between Barra and Santa Cruz, over Avenida das Américas).

In Brazil, most interstate transportation is done by road. A large terminal for long-distance buses is in the Santo Cristo neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. There are also two port facilities for cargo and passenger ships (Rio de Janeiro and Sepetiba port). Rio has roads to all neighbour States. Some roads (like Via Dutra, to São Paulo, and a stretch of the BR-101 which covers the Rio-Niterói bridge) were chartered to private enterprises. The quality of the highways improved much, but was accompanied by a significant increase of the toll fees. From São Paulo: take the BR-116 (Presidente Dutra Federal Highway) or the BR-101 (Rio-Santos Federal Highway). From Belo Horizonte: BR-040. From Salvador: BR-101 or BR-324/BR-116/BR-393/BR-040.

Bicycles

BikeRio 11 2015 Praça Mauá 706

Bike Rio rental station located in Mauá Square, Downtown Rio

The city has 160 km (99 mi) of cycle paths that, wherever they exist, are very much preferable to riding in the city's traffic. Most paths run alongside beaches and extend intermittently from the Marina da Glória, Centro, through Flamengo, Copacabana and Ipanema, to Barra da Tijuca and Recreio dos Bandeirantes. six kilometres (3.7 miles) of cycle paths traverse the Tijuca National Park.

The Bike Rio began operations in October 2011. This bicycle sharing system is sponsored by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú. The bike sharing system has 600 bicycles available at 60 rental stations in 14

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