从顶部顺时针旋转：里约市中心的建筑物全景；的雕像 基督救世主 在科尔科瓦多面包山与Botafogo的海滩；巴拉达蒂茹卡（Barra da Tijuca）海滩，背景为Pedra daGávea；明天博物馆在毛塔广场和圣特雷莎背景和电车的里约–尼泰罗伊大桥。
|昵称： Cidade Maravilhosa （奇妙的城市） 马拉维侯萨公主 （奇迹公主） Cidade dos Brasileiros （巴西人之城）|
|•都市密度||2,705.1 /公里2 （7,006 /平方英里）|
里约热内卢 或简单地 力拓，是巴西里约热内卢大都市区和人口第二大的直辖市，在美洲人口第六大的直辖市。里约热内卢是巴西第三大人口大国里约热内卢州的首府。该城市的一部分已被指定为世界遗产，名称为“里约热内卢：山与海之间的卡里奥卡景观”，联合国教科文组织于2012年7月1日将其列为文化景观。
里约热内卢是南半球访问量最大的城市之一，以其自然环境，嘉年华，桑巴舞，波萨诺瓦新星和巴尔内里奥海滩（如巴拉达蒂茹卡，科帕卡巴纳，伊帕内玛和勒布隆）而闻名。除了海滩外，一些最著名的地标还包括 基督救世主 在科科瓦多山上，被誉为世界新七大奇观之一；甜面包山及其缆车；的 桑博德罗莫 （Sambadrome），嘉年华期间使用的永久性看台内衬游行队伍大道；以及世界上最大的足球场之一的马拉卡纳体育场。里约热内卢是2016年夏季奥运会和2016年夏季残奥会的主办城市，使该城市成为有史以来第一个承办该赛事的南美和葡萄牙语国家城市，也是第三次在南半球城市举办奥运会。马拉卡纳体育场举行了1950年和2014年FIFA世界杯，2013年FIFA联合会杯以及第15届泛美运动会的决赛。
里约热内卢市由葡萄牙人于1565年3月1日建立，并命名为 里约热内卢圣塞瓦斯蒂安为了纪念圣塞巴斯蒂安，他是当时葡萄牙君主塞巴斯蒂安的同名和赞助人。 里约热内卢 是瓜纳巴拉湾的名字。直到18世纪初，这座城市一直受到法国海盗和海盗的袭击或入侵，例如让·弗朗索瓦·杜克莱尔（Jean-FrançoisDuclerc）和勒内·杜瓜伊·特鲁因（RenéDuguay-Trouin）。
王国的首都被转移到该城市，因此成为欧洲以外的唯一欧洲首都。由于没有物理空间或城市结构来容纳数百名突然来到的贵族，因此许多居民被简单地逐出家园。在最初的几十年中，创建了一些教育机构，例如军事学院，皇家科学，工艺美术学院和帝国美术学院，以及巴西国家图书馆-在拉丁美洲拥有最大的馆藏–和植物园。巴西第一本印刷报纸 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro，在此期间开始流通。当巴西在1815年升格为王国时，它成为葡萄牙，巴西和阿尔加维斯联合王国的首都，直到1821年葡萄牙王室回到里斯本，但仍然是巴西王国的首都。
1889年2月6日，以巴西工业进步公司（巴西的Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil）的名称成立了Bangu纺织厂。该工厂于1893年3月8日正式开业，其建筑群具有不同的建筑风格，例如意大利风格，新哥特式风格和Mansard Roof风格的塔楼。 1893年开业后，来自英国的工人来到班古在纺织厂工作。旧农场变成了带有红砖房的工人村庄，并创建了一座新哥特式教堂，至今仍作为圣塞巴斯蒂安教堂和圣塞西莉亚教区教堂存在。街头电影院和文化建筑也出现了。 1894年5月，来自苏格兰Busby的英国工人Thomas Donohoe抵达班古。
在建立巴西的旧共和国时期，该城市缺乏城市规划和卫生设施，这有助于传播多种疾病，例如黄热病，痢疾，天花，结核病甚至黑人死亡。佩雷拉·帕索斯（Pereira Passos）于1902年被任命为市长，他进行了改革以使这座城市现代化，摧毁了大多数贫困人口居住的科尔蒂索斯岛。这些人大多是奴隶的后代，然后搬到城市的山丘上生活，创建了第一批贫民窟。受巴黎市的启发，Passos在城市中心建立了市政剧院，国家美术馆和国家图书馆。为里约热内卢带来了电力，并创造了更大的途径使这座城市适应汽车。 Passos还任命Oswaldo Cruz博士为公共卫生总监。克鲁兹（Cruz）清洁疾病之城的计划包括对全体人口强制接种疫苗，并强迫他们进入房屋以杀死蚊子和老鼠。城市居民反对克鲁兹的政策，即所谓的疫苗起义。
在1910年，里约（Rio）看到了鞭子的起义，巴西海军的非洲裔巴西船员反叛了体罚，这种体罚类似于奴隶受到的惩罚。叛变者控制了战舰 米纳斯·格拉斯（Minas Geraes） 并威胁要向这座城市开火。另一场军事起义发生于1922年，是科帕卡巴纳堡发动的18起叛乱，是对旧共和国的冠冕主义和咖啡馆综合政治的游行。这次起义标志着Tenentism的开始，这一运动导致1930年的巴西革命开始了Vargas时代。
直到20世纪初，这座城市基本上只限于瓜纳巴拉湾口附近的历史悠久的市中心（见下文）。 20世纪初期，该市的重心开始向南和向西转移到所谓的Zona Sul（南部地区），当时在Botafogo和附近的山区之间修建了第一条隧道，现在被称为科帕卡巴纳。 1905年后，里约有轨电车运输系统的整合和电气化促进了城市向北和向南的扩展。博塔福戈的自然环境与科帕卡巴纳皇宫酒店的名气相结合， 的 1930年代美洲豪华酒店帮助Rio赢得了今天仍然是海滩派对小镇的声誉（尽管近年来这种声誉因麻醉品交易引起的贫民窟暴力而受到损害）。
里约热内卢（Rio de Janeiro）位于巴西大西洋沿岸的最西端（科斯塔佛得角（Costa Verde）东至伊利亚格兰德（Ilha Grande）海峡和卡波弗里奥（Cabo Frio）海峡之间），靠近热带摩Cap座，那里的海岸线向东西方。这座城市大部分面朝南部，位于这条海岸的瓜纳巴拉湾（Baíade Guanabara）的入口处，入口处有一块叫作Sugar Loaf（PãodeAçúcar）的土地–“名片”城市的。
中心（Centro）是里约（Rio）的核心，位于瓜纳巴拉湾（Guanabara Bay）西海岸的平原上。城市的大部分地区，通常称为北部地区（里约热内卢，佐纳市北部）），在由海洋和大陆沉积物组成的平原上，以及在丘陵和几座落基山脉上，向西北延伸。该市的南部区域（Zona Sul）到达了公海边缘的海滩，与中心和北部区域之间的海岸山脉被切断。这些山脉和丘陵是塞拉多马尔（Serra do Mar）西北部的分支，古老的片麻岩-花岗岩山脉形成了巴西高地的南坡。到20世纪末，新的道路和隧道使南部地区的人们更容易进入大面积的西部地区（Zona Oeste），长期被山区地形割断。
里约热内卢市的人口约为1,000,000，面积为1,182.3平方公里（456.5平方英里）。大都市区的人口估计为11–13,500,000。这座城市的居民被称为 卡里奥卡斯。里约的官方歌曲是作曲家安德烈·菲略（AndréFilho）创作的“ Cidade Maravilhosa”。
该市拥有公园和生态保护区，例如蒂茹卡国家公园，世界上第一个城市森林和联合国教科文组织环境遗产与生物圈保护区；佩德拉布兰卡州立公园，位于里约热内卢的最高点，佩德拉布兰卡的顶峰； Quinta da Boa Vista建筑群；植物园；里约动物园； Parque Lage;以及PasseioPúblico，这是美洲第一个公园。此外，弗拉门戈公园（Flamengo Park）是该市最大的垃圾填埋场，从市中心延伸到南部地区，除了许多植被外，还拥有博物馆和纪念碑。
Marapendi泻湖和Rodrigo de Freitas泻湖在当局的宽大处理和附近公寓楼数量的增长中遭受了损失。污水的秘密排放和藻类的扩散减少了水域的氧合作用，从而导致鱼类死亡。
大致位于与2012年3月，2013年2月至2013年3月以及2015年1月的假冰雹位置相对应的同一郊区（新伊瓜苏及周边地区，包括大坎普和班古的部分地区）（格兰尼佐）跌倒时，2011年1月出现了类似龙卷风的现象，这是该地区有记录的历史上的第一次，造成结构破坏和持久的停电，但没有死亡。世界气象组织建议，巴西，尤其是其东南部地区，必须为不久的将来日益严峻的天气事件做好准备，因为诸如灾难性的2011年1月里约热内卢洪水和泥石流之类的事件并非孤立现象。 2013年5月上旬，风速超过90 km / h（56 mph）的风在该城市的15个街区和三个周边城市造成了停电，造成1人死亡。里约在2015年1月出现了类似的强风（约100 km / h（62英里/小时））。年平均最低气温为21°C（70°F），年平均最高气温为27°C（81°F），年平均气温为24°C（75°F）。年平均降水量为1,069毫米（42.1英寸）。
里约热内卢仅次于库亚巴，是巴西北部和东北部以外最热的巴西州首府。每年发生低于14°C（57°F）的温度，而低于11°C（52°F）的温度发生的频率降低。词组， 法泽弗里奥 （“变冷”，即“天气变冷”）通常是指温度低于21°C（70°F），全年可能会出现这种情况，在秋季中秋至冬季和冬季很常见。初春的夜晚。
1961年至1990年之间，在Saúde附近的INMET（巴西国家气象研究所）常规站，1977年10月的最低记录温度为10.1°C（50.2°F），最高记录温度为39°C（ 1963年12月为102.2°F）。1962年1月，24小时内的最高累积降雨量为167.4毫米（6.6英寸）。但是，INMETJacarepaguá站的7月绝对最低温度为3.8°C（38.8°F）。 1974年，而圣克鲁斯站附近的绝对最大值是43.2°C（110°F），2012年12月26日，而圣特雷莎记录到24小时的最高累积降雨量为186.2毫米（7.3英寸）站于1967年4月。2011年7月，维拉米利塔尔（Vila Militar）发生了21世纪最低气温记录，为8.1°C（46.6°F）。
这座城市通常分为历史中心（Centro）；旅游友好的较富裕的南部地区（南佐纳）；居住条件较差的北部地区（北区）；西部地区（Zona Oeste）的外围地区，其中包括圣克鲁斯（Santa Cruz），格兰德（Campo Grande）和较富有的较新的巴拉达蒂茹卡（Barra da Tijuca）地区。
Centro或Downtown是城市的历史中心，也是其金融中心。名胜古迹包括在殖民时期建造的PaçoImperial，用作巴西葡萄牙总督的住所；许多历史悠久的教堂，例如坎德拉里亚教堂（前大教堂），圣何塞，圣卢西亚，诺萨·森霍拉·杜卡莫，圣丽塔，圣弗朗西斯科·德·波拉以及圣安托尼奥和圣本托的修道院。 Centro还设有现代化的混凝土里约热内卢大教堂。在Cinelândia广场周围，有几个地标 美女艾波克 里约热内卢，例如市政剧院和国家图书馆大楼。
在其几个博物馆中，最重要的是国家艺术博物馆（国家博物馆）和历史博物馆（国家历史博物馆）。里约市中心的其他重要历史景点还包括其18世纪的公共花园PasseioPúblico。主要街道包括里约布兰科大道（Avenida Rio Branco）和瓦尔加斯大道（Avenida Vargas），两者分别于1906年和1942年通过摧毁殖民城市的大片土地而建成。许多殖民地街道，例如Rua do Ouvidor和Uruguaiana，长期以来一直是行人专用区，而颇受欢迎的Saara购物区最近也已被行人专用区隔离。同样位于市中心的是称为Lapa的传统街区，这是一个重要的波西米亚风情，当地居民和游客都经常光顾。
里约热内卢南部地区（佐纳·苏尔）由几个地区组成，其中圣保罗（SãoConrado），勒布朗（Leblon），依帕内玛（Ipanema），阿波多尔（Arpoador），科帕卡巴纳（Copacabana）和莱姆（Leme），构成了里约热内卢著名的地区 大西洋海滩海岸线。 Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Catete, Flamengo, Botafogo, and Urca, which border Guanabara Bay, and Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânico, and Gávea. It is the wealthiest part of the city and the best known overseas; the neighborhoods of Leblon and Ipanema, in particular, have the most expensive real estate in all of South America.
The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world's most spectacular New Year's Eve parties ("Reveillon"), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworks display. From 2001, the fireworks have been launched from boats, to improve the safety of the event.
To the north of Leme, and at the entrance to Guanabara Bay, is the district of Urca and the Sugarloaf Mountain ('Pão de Açúcar'), whose name describes the famous mountain rising out of the sea. The summit can be reached via a two-stage cable car trip from Praia Vermelha, with the intermediate stop on Morro da Urca. It offers views of the city second only to Corcovado mountain. Hang gliding is a popular activity on the Pedra Bonita (literally, "Beautiful Rock"). After a short flight, gliders land on the Praia do Pepino (Pepino, or "cucumber", Beach) in São Conrado.
Since 1961, the Tijuca National Park (Parque Nacional da Tijuca), the largest city-surrounded urban forest and the second largest urban forest in the world, has been a National Park. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro or PUC-Rio), Brazil's top private university, is located at the edge of the forest, in the Gávea district. The 1984 film Blame It on Rio was filmed nearby, with the rental house used by the story's characters sitting at the edge of the forest on a mountain overlooking the famous beaches. In 2012, CNN elected Ipanema the best city beach in the world.
The North Zone (Zona Norte) begins at Grande Tijuca (the middle class residential and commercial bairro of Tijuca), just west of the city center, and sprawls for miles inland until Baixada Fluminense and the city's Northwest.
This region is home to the Maracanã stadium (located in Grande Tijuca), once the world's highest capacity football venue, able to hold nearly 199,000 people, as it did for the World Cup final of 1950. More recently its capacity has been reduced to conform with modern safety regulations and the stadium has introduced seating for all fans. Currently undergoing reconstruction, it has now the capacity for 90,000; it will eventually hold around 80,000 people. Maracanã was the site for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football competition of the 2007 Pan American Games; hosted the final match of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and the football matches of the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Besides Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also has other tourist and historical attractions, such "Nossa Senhora da Penha de França Church", the Christ the Redeemer (statue) with its stairway built into the rock bed, 'Manguinhos', the home of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorish palace, and the Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historic Imperial Palace is located. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specialising in Natural History, Archaeology, and Ethnology. The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim), the main campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio.
This region is also home to most of the samba schools of Rio de Janeiro such as Mangueira, Salgueiro, Império Serrano, Unidos da Tijuca, Imperatriz Leopoldinense, among others. Some of the main neighbourhoods of Rio's North Zone are Alto da Boa Vista which shares the Tijuca Rainforest with the South and Southwest Zones; Tijuca, Vila Isabel, Méier, São Cristovão, Madureira, Penha, Manguinhos, Fundão, Olaria among others. Many of Rio de Janeiro's roughly 1000 slums, or favelas, are located in the North Zone. The favelas resemble the slums of Paris, New York or other major cities in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and Europe, or similar neighborhoods in present underdeveloped countries.
West Zone (Zona Oeste) of Rio de Janeiro is a vaguely defined area that covers some 50% of the city's entire area, including Barra da Tijuca and Recreio dos Bandeirantes neighborhoods. The West Side of Rio has many historic sites because of the old "Royal Road of Santa Cruz" that crossed the territory in the regions of Realengo, Bangu, and Campo Grande, finishing at the Royal Palace of Santa Cruz in the Santa Cruz region. The highest peak of the city of Rio de Janeiro is the Pedra Branca Peak (Pico da Pedra Branca) inside the Pedra Branca State Park. It has an altitude of 1024m. The Pedra Branca State Park (Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca) is the biggest urban state park in the world comprising 17 neighborhoods in the west side, being a "giant lung" in the city with trails, waterfalls and historic constructions like an old aqueduct in the Colônia Juliano Moreira in the neighborhood of Taquara and a dam in Camorim. The park has three principal entrances: the main one is in Taquara called Pau da Fome Core, another entrance is the Piraquara Core in Realengo and the last one is the Camorim Core, considered the cultural heritage of the city.
Santa Cruz and Campo Grande Region have exhibited economic growth, mainly in the Campo Grande neighborhood. Industrial enterprises are being built in lower and lower middle class residential Santa Cruz, one of the largest and most populous of Rio de Janeiro's neighbourhoods, most notably Ternium Brasil, a new steel mill with its own private docks on Sepetiba Bay, which is planned to be South America's largest steel works. A tunnel called Túnel da Grota Funda, opened in 2012, creating a public transit facility between Barra da Tijuca and Santa Cruz, lessening travel time to the region from other areas of Rio de Janeiro.
Barra da Tijuca region
This is an elite area of the West Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It includes Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Vargem Grande, Vargem Pequena, Grumari, Itanhangá, Camorim and Joá. Westwards from the older zones of Rio, Barra da Tijuca is a flat complex of barrier islands of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which constantly experiences new constructions and developments. It remains an area of accelerated growth, attracting some of the richer sectors of the population as well as luxury companies. High rise flats and sprawling shopping centers give the area a far more modern feel than the crowded city centre.
The urban planning of the area, completed in the late 1960s, mixes zones of single-family houses with residential skyscrapers. The beaches of Barra da Tijuca are also popular with the residents from other parts of the city. One of the most famous hills in the city is the 842-metre-high (2,762-foot) Pedra da Gávea (Crow's nest Rock) bordering the South Zone. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Däniken in his 1973 book, In Search of Ancient Gods, claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometres around.
|Race and ethnicity in Rio de Janeiro|
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 5,940,224 people residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The census revealed the following numbers: 3,239,888 White people (51.2%), 2,318,675 Pardo (multiracial) people (36.5%), 708,148 Black people (11.5%), 45,913 Asian people (0.7%), 5,981 Amerindian people (0.1%). The population of Rio de Janeiro was 53.2% female and 46.8% male.
In 2010, the city of Rio de Janeiro was the 2nd most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo.
Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.
Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal. After independence from Portugal, Rio de Janeiro became a destination for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Portugal, mainly in the early 20th century. The immigrants were mostly poor peasants who subsequently found prosperity in Rio as city workers and small traders. The Portuguese cultural influence is still seen in many parts of the city (and many other parts of the state of Rio de Janeiro), including architecture and language. Most Brazilians with some cultural contact with Rio know how to easily differentiate between the local dialect, fluminense, and other Brazilian dialects.
Portuguese immigrant in Rio de Janeiro.
People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. The Brazilian census of 1920 showed that 39.7% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil lived in Rio de Janeiro. Including all of the Rio de Janeiro, the proportion raised to 46.3% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil. The numerical presence of the Portuguese was extremely high, accounting for 72% of the foreigners who lived in the capital. Portuguese born people accounted for 20.4% of the population of Rio, and those with a Portuguese father or a Portuguese mother accounted for 30.8%. In other words, native born Portuguese and their children accounted for 51.2% of the inhabitants of Rio, or a total of 267,664 people in 1890.
|Brazilians with at least one Portuguese parent||161,203||30.8%|
|Portuguese immigrants and their descendants||267,664||51.2%|
The black community was formed by residents whose ancestors had been brought as slaves, mostly from Angola and Mozambique, as well by people of Angolan, Mozambican and West African descent who moved to Rio from other parts of Brazil. The samba (from Bahia with Angolan influence) and the famous local version of the carnival (from Europe) first appeared under the influence of the black community in the city.
Today, nearly half of the city's population is by phenotype perceptibly black or part black. A large majority has some recent sub-Saharan ancestor. White in Brazil is defined more by having a European-looking phenotype rather than ancestry, and two full siblings can be of different "racial" categories in a skin color and phenotype continuum from pálido （branco) or fair-skinned, through branco moreno or swarthy Caucasian, mestiço claro or lighter skinned multiracial, pardo (mixed race) to negro or black. Pardo, for example, in popular usage includes those who are caboclos (mestizos), mulatos (mulattoes), cafuzos (zambos), juçaras (archaic term for tri-racials) and westernized Amerindians (which are called caboclos as well), being more of a skin color rather than a racial group in particular.
As a result of the influx of immigrants to Brazil from the late 19th to the early 20th century, also found in Rio de Janeiro and its metropolitan area are communities of Levantine Arabs who are mostly Christian or Irreligious, Spaniards, Italians, Germans, Japanese, Jews, and people from other parts of Brazil. The main waves of internal migration came from people of African, mixed or older Portuguese (as descendants of early settlers) descent from Minas Gerais and people of Eastern European, Swiss, Italian, German, Portuguese and older Portuguese-Brazilian heritage from Espírito Santo in the early and mid-20th century, together with people with origins in Northeastern Brazil, in the mid-to-late and late 20th century, as well some in the early 21st century (the latter more directed to peripheries than the city's core).
|Genomic ancestry of non-related individuals in Rio de Janeiro|
|Race or skin color||Number of individuals||Amerindian||African||European|
|Pardo (Mixed race)||119||8.3%||23.6%||68.1%|
According to an autosomal DNA study from 2009, conducted on a school in the poor suburb of Rio de Janeiro, the "pardos" there were found to be on average about 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures. The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry. In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry on average reached 80% European. Other studies showed similar results
|Self-reported ancestry of people from Rio de Janeiro, by race or skin color (2000 survey)|
|African and European||23%||34%||31%|
|Amerindian and European||14%||6%||—|
|African and Amerindian||—||4%||9%|
|African, Amerindian and European||15%||36%||35%|
The Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, according to 2009 research from Fundação Getúlio Vargas (known as Novo Mapa das Religiões), ranks first in Brazil in the percentage of Catholics (51.1%) living there. Rio de Janeiro city also ranks fifth among Brazilian state capital cities in the percentage of its population that is irreligious (13.3%), barely changing since 2000 (the first-ranked, Boa Vista, has 21.2% irreligious). It is also the Brazilian state capital with the greatest percentage of Spiritists (now about 4–5%), and with substantial numbers in Afro-Brazilian religions and Eastern religions.
There are significant disparities between the rich and the poor in Rio de Janeiro, and different socioeconomic groups are largely segregated into different neighborhoods. Although the city clearly ranks among the world's major metropolises, large numbers live in slums known as favelas, where 95% of the population are poor, compared to 40% in the general population.
There have been a number of government initiatives to counter this problem, from the removal of the population from favelas to housing projects such as Cidade de Deus to the more recent approach of improving conditions in the favelas and bringing them up to par with the rest of the city, as was the focus of the "Favela Bairro" program and deployment of Pacifying Police Units.
Rio has more people living in slums than any other city in Brazil, according to the 2010 Census. More than 1,500,000 people live in its 763 favelas, 22% of Rio's total population. São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil, has more favelas (1,020) in sheer numbers, but proportionally has fewer people living in favelas than Rio.
Rio de Janeiro has the second largest GDP of any city in Brazil, surpassed only by São Paulo. According to the IBGE, it was approximately US$201 billion in 2008, equivalent to 5.1% of the national total.
The services sector comprises the largest portion of GDP (65.5%), followed by commerce (23.4%), industrial activities (11.1%) and agriculture (0.1%).
The off-shore oil exploration in the Campos Basin began in 1968 and became the main site for oil production of Brazil. This caused many oil and gas companies to be based in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian branches of Shell, EBX and Esso. For many years Rio was the second largest industrial hub of Brazil, with oil refineries, shipbuilding industries, steel, metallurgy, petrochemicals, cement, pharmaceutical, textile, processed foods and furniture industries.
Major international pharmaceutical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio such as: Merck, Roche, Arrow, Darrow, Baxter, Mayne, and Mappel.
A newer electronics and computer sector has been added to the more-established industries. Construction, also an important activity, provides a significant source of employment for large numbers of unskilled workers and is buoyed by the number of seasonal residents who build second homes in the Greater Rio de Janeiro area.
Rio is an important financial centre, second only to São Paulo in volume of business.
Tourism and entertainment are other key aspects of the city's economic life. The city is the nation's top tourist attraction for both Brazilians and foreigners.
Owing to the proximity of Rio's port facilities, many of Brazil's export-import companies are headquartered in the city.
Rio de Janeiro is (as of 2014（更新）) the second largest exporting municipality in Brazil. Annually, Rio exported a total of $7.49B (USD) worth of goods. The top three goods exported by the municipality were crude petroleum (40%), semi finished iron product (16%), and semi finished steel products (11%). Material categories of mineral products (42%) and metals (29%) make up 71% of all exports from Rio.
Compared to other cities, Rio de Janeiro's economy is the 2nd largest in Brazil, behind São Paulo, and the 30th largest in the world with a GDP of R$ 201,9 billion in 2010.
Rio de Janeiro is Brazil's primary tourist attraction and resort. It receives the most visitors per year of any city in South America with 2.82 million international tourists a year.
The city world-class hotels, like Belmond Copacabana Palace, approximately 80 kilometres of beaches and the famous Corcovado, Sugarloaf mountains and Maracanã Stadium.
The city is an important global LGBT destination, 1 million LGBT tourists visiting each year.
The Portuguese language is the official and national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official curriculum. There are also international schools, such as the American School of Rio de Janeiro, Our Lady of Mercy School, the Corcovado German School, the Lycée Français and the British School of Rio de Janeiro.
The city has several universities and research institutes. The Ministry of Education has certified approximately 99 upper-learning institutions in Rio. The most prestigious university is the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the fifth best in Latin America, and the second best in Brazil, second only to the University of São Paulo, the best in Latin America, according to the QS World University Rankings.
Some notable higher education institutions are: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ); Federal University of the Rio de Janeiro state (UNIRIO); Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ); Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, often nicknamed Rural); Fluminense Federal University (UFF); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio); Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV); Military Institute of Engineering (IME); Superior Institute of Technology in Computer Science of Rio de Janeiro (IST-Rio); College of Publicity and Marketing (ESPM); National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) and Federal Center of Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ). There are more than 137 upper-learning institutions in whole Rio de Janeiro state.
Primary schools are largely under municipal administration, while the state plays a more significant role in the extensive network of secondary schools. There are also a small number of schools under federal administration, as is the case of Pedro II School, Colégio de Aplicação da UFRJ and the Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica of Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ). In addition, Rio has an ample offering of private schools that provide education at all levels. Rio is home to many colleges and universities. The literacy rate for cariocas aged 10 and older is nearly 95 percent, well above the national average.
The Rio de Janeiro State University (public), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (public), Brazilian Institute of Capital Markets (private) and Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (private) are among the country's top institutions of higher education. Other institutes of higher learning include the Colégio Regina Coeli in Usina, notable for having its own 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge funicular railway on its grounds.
In Rio, there were 1,033 primary schools with 25,594 teachers and 667,788 students in 1995. There are 370 secondary schools with 9,699 teachers and 227,892 students. There are 53 University-preparatory schools with 14,864 teachers and 154,447 students. The city has six major universities and 47 private schools of higher learning.
Rio de Janeiro is a main cultural hub in Brazil. Its architecture embraces churches and buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th centuries, blending with the world-renowned designs of the 20th century. Rio was home to the Portuguese Imperial family and capital of the country for many years, and was influenced by Portuguese, English, and French architecture.
Rio de Janeiro has inherited a strong cultural role from the past. In the late 19th century, there were sessions held of the first Brazilian film and since then, several production cycles have spread out, eventually placing Rio at the forefront of experimental and national cinema. The Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival has been held annually since 1999.
Rio currently brings together the main production centers of Brazilian television. Major international films set in Rio de Janeiro include Blame it on Rio; the James Bond film Moonraker; the Oscar award-winning, critically acclaimed Central Station by Walter Salles, who is also one of Brazil's best-known directors; and the Oscar award-winning historical drama, Black Orpheus, which depicted the early days of Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro. Internationally famous, Brazilian-made movies illustrating a darker side of Rio de Janeiro include Elite Squad 和 City of God。
Rio has many important cultural landmarks, such as the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library), one of the largest libraries in the world with collections totalling more than 9 million items; the Theatro Municipal; the National Museum of Fine Arts; the Carmen Miranda Museum; the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden; the Parque Lage; the Quinta da Boa Vista; the Imperial Square; the Brazilian Academy of Letters; the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro; and the Natural History Museum.
After Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822, Rio de Janeiro quickly developed a European-style bourgeois cultural life, including numerous newspapers, in which most 19th-century novels were initially published in serial. Joaquim Manuel de Macedo's A Moreninha (1844) was perhaps the first successful novel in Brazil and inaugurates a recurrent 19th-century theme: a romantic relationship between idealistic young people in spite of cruelties of social fortune.
The first notable work of realism focusing on the urban lower-middle class is Manuel Antônio de Almeida's Memórias de um sargento de milícias (1854), which presents a series of picaresque but touching scenes, and evokes the transformation of a town into a city with suggestive nostalgia. Romantic and realist modes both flourished through the late 19th century and often overlapped within works.
The most famous author of Rio de Janeiro, however, was Machado de Assis, who is also widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature and considered the founder of Realism in Brazil, with the publication of The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas (1881). He commented on and criticized the political and social events of the city and country such as the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the transition from Empire to Republic with his numerous chronicles published in newspapers of the time. Many of his short stories and novels, like Quincas Borba (1891) and Dom Casmurro (1899), are placed in Rio.
The headquarters of the Brazilian Academy of Letters is based in Rio de Janeiro. It was satirized by the novelist Jorge Amado in Pen, Sword, Camisole。 Amado, himself, went on to be one of the 40 members of the Academy.
National Library of Brazil
Royal Portuguese Cabinet of Reading
The Biblioteca Nacional (National Library of Brazil) ranks as one of the largest libraries in the world. It is also the largest library in all of Latin America. Located in Cinelândia, the National Library was originally created by the King of Portugal, in 1810. As with many of Rio de Janeiro's cultural monuments, the library was originally off-limits to the general public. The most valuable collections in the library include: 4,300 items donated by Barbosa Machado including a precious collection of rare brochures detailing the History of Portugal and Brazil; 2,365 items from the 17th and 18th centuries that were previously owned by Antônio de Araújo de Azevedo, the "Count of Barca", including the 125-volume set of prints "Le Grand Théâtre de l'Univers;" a collection of documents regarding the Jesuítica Province of Paraguay and the "Region of Prata;" and the Teresa Cristina Maria Collection, donated by Emperor Pedro II. The collection contains 48,236 items. Individual items of special interest include a rare first edition of Os Lusíadas by Luis de Camões, published in 1584; two copies of the Mogúncia Bible; and a first edition of Handel's Messiah.
The Real Gabinete Português de Leitura (Portuguese Royal Reading Library) is located at Rua Luís de Camões, in the Centro (Downtown). The institution was founded in 1837 by a group of forty-three Portuguese immigrants, political refugees, to promote culture among the Portuguese community in the then capital of the Empire. The history of the Brazilian Academy of Letters is linked to the Real Gabinete, since some of the early meetings of the Academy were held there.
The official song of Rio de Janeiro is "Cidade Maravilhosa", which means "marvelous city". The song is considered the civic anthem of Rio, and is always the favourite song during Rio's Carnival in February. Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, are considered the centre of the urban music movement in Brazil.
"Rio was popularised by the hit song "The Girl from Ipanema", composed by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes and recorded by Astrud Gilberto and João Gilberto, Frank Sinatra, and Ella Fitzgerald. It is also the main key song of the bossa nova, a music genre born in Rio. A genre unique to Rio and Brazil as a whole is Funk Carioca. While samba music continues to act as the national unifying agent in Rio, Funk Carioca found a strong community following in Brazil. With its genesis in the 1970s as the modern black pop music from the United States, it evolved in the 1990s to describe a variety of electronic music associated with the current US black music scene, including hip hop, modern soul, and house music."
Brazil's return to democracy in 1985 after over 20 years of military authoritarian rule, and the subsequent end of rampant censorship, allowed for a new freedom of expression which promoted creativity and experimentation in expressive culture. Commercial and cultural imports from Europe and North America have often influenced Brazil's own cultural output. For example, the hip hop that has stemmed from New York is localized into forms of musical production such as Funk Carioca and Brazilian hip hop. Bands from Rio de Janeiro also had influence in the mid-to-late development of the Punk in Brazil, and that of Brazilian thrash metal. Democratic renewal also allowed for the recognition and acceptance of this diversification of Brazilian culture.
Rio de Janeiro's Theatro Municipal is one of the most attractive buildings in the central area of the city. Home of one of the largest stages in Latin America and one of Brazil's best known venues for opera, ballet, and classical music, the building was inspired by the Palais Garnier, home of the Paris Opera. Construction of the Theatro Municipal began in 1905 following designs of the architect Francisco Pereira Passos. The statues on the top, of two women representing Poetry and Music, are by Rodolfo Bernardelli, and the interior is rich with furnishings and fine paintings. Inaugurated in 1909, the Teatro Municipal has close to 1,700 seats. Its interior includes turn of the century stained glass from France, ceilings of rose-colored marble and a 1,000 pound crystal bead chandelier surrounded by a painting of the "Dance of the Hours". The exterior walls of the building are dotted with inscriptions bearing the names of famous Brazilians as well as many other international celebrities.
Cidade das Artes (City of Arts) is a cultural complex in Barra da Tijuca in the Southwest Zone of Rio de Janeiro, which was originally planned to open in 2004. Formally known as "Cidade da Música" (City of Music), it was finally inaugurated at the beginning of 2013. The project will host the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra becoming a main center for music as will be the largest modern concert hall in South America, with 1,780 seats. The complex spans approximately 90 thousand square metres (1 million square feet) and also features a chamber music hall, three theaters, and 12 rehearsal rooms. From the terrace there is a panoramic view of the zone. The building was designed by the French architect Christian de Portzamparc and construction was funded by the city of Rio de Janeiro.
New Year's Eve
Every 31 December, 2.5 million people gather at Copacabana Beach to celebrate New Year's in Rio de Janeiro. The crowd, mostly dressed in white, celebrates all night at the hundreds of different shows and events along the beach. It is the second largest celebration only next to the Carnival. People celebrate the New Year by sharing chilled champagne. It is considered good luck to shake the champagne bottle and spray around at midnight. Chilled champagne adds to the spirit of the festivities.
Rock in Rio
"Rock in Rio" is a music festival conceived by entrepreneur Roberto Medina for the first time in 1985, and since its creation, recognized as the largest music festival in the Latin world and the largest in the world, with 1.5 million people attending the first event, 700,000 attending the second and fourth, about 1.2 million attending the third, and about 350,000 people attending each of the 3 Lisbon events. It was originally organized in Rio de Janeiro, from where the name comes from, has become a world level event and, in 2004, had its first edition abroad in Lisbon, Portugal, before Madrid, Spain and Las Vegas, United States. The festival is considered the eighth best in the world by the specialized site Fling Festival.
Carnaval, is an annual celebration in the Roman Catholic tradition that allows merry-making and red meat consumption before the more sober 40 days of Lent penance which culminates with Holy or Passion Week and Easter. The tradition of Carnaval parades was probably influenced by the French or German courts and the custom was brought by the Portuguese or Brazilian Imperial families who had Bourbon and Austrian ancestors. Up until the time of the marchinhas, the revelry was more of a high class and Caucasian-led event. The influence of the African-Brazilian drums and music became more noticeable from the first half of the 20th century. Rio de Janeiro has many Carnaval choices, including the famous samba school (Escolas de Samba) parades in the sambadrome exhibition center and the popular blocos de carnaval, street revelry, which parade in almost every corner of the city. The most famous ones are:
- Cordão do Bola Preta: Parades in the centre of the city. It is one of the most traditional carnavals. In 2008, 500,000 people attended in one day. In 2011, a record 2 million people attended the city covering three different metro stations.
- Suvaco do Cristo: Band that parades in the Botanic Garden, directly below the Redeemer statue's arm. The name translates to 'Christ's armpit' in English, and was chosen for that reason.
- Carmelitas: Band that was supposedly created by nuns, but in fact is just a theme chosen by the band. It parades in Santa Teresa, a bairro from where one can see extensive panoramas.
- Simpatia é Quase Amor: One of the most popular parades in Ipanema. Translates as 'Friendliness is almost love'.
- Banda de Ipanema: The most traditional in Ipanema. It attracts a wide range of revellers, including families and a wide spectrum of the LGBT/Queer population (notably drag queens).
In 1840, the first Carnaval was celebrated with a masked ball. As years passed, adorned floats and costumed revelers became a tradition among the celebrants. Carnaval is known as a historic root of Brazilian music.
As in the rest of Brazil, association football is the most popular sport. The city's major teams are Flamengo, Vasco da Gama, Fluminense and Botafogo. Madureira, Bangu, Portuguesa, America and Bonsucesso are small clubs. Famous players born in the city include Ronaldo and Romário.
Rio de Janeiro was one of the host cities of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, for which on both occasions Brazil was the host nation. In 1950, the Maracanã Stadium hosted 8 matches, including all but one of the host team's matches. The Maracanã was also the location of the infamous tournament-deciding match between Uruguay and Brazil, where Brazil only needed a draw to win the final group stage and the whole tournament. Brazil ended up losing 2–1 in front of a home crowd of more than 199,000. In 2014, the Maracanã hosted seven matches, including the final, where Germany beat Argentina 1–0.
|Flamengo||Série A||Maracanã Stadium
78,838 (173,850 record)
|Vasco da Gama||Série A||São Januário Stadium
24,880 (40,209 record)
|Fluminense||Série A||Maracanã Stadium
78,838 (173,850 record)
|Botafogo||Série A||Nilton Santos Stadium
46,931 (43,810 record)
|Madureira||Série D||Estádio Aniceto Moscoso
5,400 (10,762 record)
|Bangu||Série D||Estádio Moça Bonita
9,564 (17,000 record)
|Portuguesa||Série D||Estádio Luso Brasileiro
15,000 (18,725 record)
|Bonsucesso||Campeonato Carioca||Leônidas da Silva Stadium
13,000 (13,571 record)
|America||Campeonato Carioca Série B||Edson Passos
13,544 (9,861 record)
On 2 October 2009, the International Olympic Committee selected Rio de Janeiro to host the 2016 Summer Olympics. Rio made their first bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but lost to Berlin. They later made bids for the 2004 and 2012 Games, but failed to become a candidate city both times. Those games were awarded to Athens and London respectively.
Rio is the first Brazilian and South American city to host the Summer Olympics. Rio de Janeiro also became the first city in the southern hemisphere outside of Australia to host the games – Melbourne in 1956 and Sydney in 2000. In July 2007, Rio successfully organized and hosted the XV Pan American Games.
Rio de Janeiro also hosted the 2011 Military World Games from 15–24 July 2011. The 2011 Military World Games were the largest military sports event ever held in Brazil, with approximately 4,900 athletes from 108 countries competing in 20 sports.
Rio de Janeiro hosted the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics. The Olympic Games were held from 5 to 21 August 2016. The Paralympics were held from 7 to 18 September 2016.
The city has a history as host of major international sports events. The Ginásio do Maracanãzinho was the host arena for the official FIBA Basketball World Championship for its 1954 and 1963 editions. Later, the Jacarepaguá circuit in Rio de Janeiro was the site for the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix from 1978 to 1989. Rio de Janeiro also hosted the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix from 1995 to 2004 and the Champ Car event from 1996 to 1999. WCT/WQS surfing championships were contested on the beaches from 1985 to 2001. The Rio Champions Cup Tennis tournament is held in the spring. As part of its preparations to host the 2007 Pan American Games, Rio built a new stadium, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. The stadium is owned by the city of Rio de Janeiro, but it was rented to Botafogo de Futebol e Regatas for 20 years. Rio de Janeiro has also a multi-purpose arena, the HSBC Arena.
The Brazilian Dance/Sport/Martial art Capoeira is very popular. Other popular sports are basketball, beach football, beach volleyball, Beach American Football, footvolley, surfing, kite surfing, hang gliding, motor racing, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, sailing, and competitive rowing. Another sport that is highly popular in beaches of Rio is called "Frescobol" (pronounced: (fɾe̞ɕko̞ˈbɔw)), a type of beach tennis. Rio de Janeiro is also paradise for rock climbers, with hundreds of routes all over the city, ranging from easy boulders to highly technical big wall climbs, all inside the city. The most famous, Rio's granite mountain, the Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar), is an example, with routes from the easy third grade (American 5.4, French 3) to the extremely difficult ninth grade (5.13/8b), up to 280 metres (919 feet).
Horse racing events are held Thursday nights and weekend afternoons at Hipódromo da Gávea. An impressive place with excellent grass and dirt tracks, it runs the best horses in the nation. Hang gliding in Rio de Janeiro started in the mid-1970s and quickly proved to be well-suited for this town, because of its geography: steep mountains encounter the Atlantic Ocean, which provide excellent take-off locations and great landing zones on the beach.
One of the most popular sea sports in the city is yachting. The main yacht clubs are in Botafogo area that extends halfway between Copacabana and the center of town. Though the most exclusive and interesting is probably the Rio Yacht club, where high society makes it a point to congregate. Most yacht clubs are open to members only and gate crashing is not easy. Copacabana is also a great place to do surfing as well as "Arpoador of Ipanema" beach and "Praia dos Bandeirantes". The sea at these beaches is rough and dangerous, the best surfers from Brazil and other sites of the world come to these beaches to prove themselves.
The city of Rio de Janeiro is served by the following airports for use:
- Galeão–Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport: used for all international and most of the domestic flights. Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to the city. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to 19 countries. It has a capacity to handle up to 30 million users a year in two passenger terminals. It is located 20 km (12 mi) from downtown Rio. The airport complex also has Brazil's longest runway at 4,000 m (13,123.36 ft), and one of South America's largest cargo logistics terminals. The airport is connected to the express bus service.
- Santos Dumont Airport: used mainly by the services to São Paulo, some short and medium-haul domestic flights, and general aviation. Located on Guanabara Bay just a few blocks from the heart of downtown Rio, during the 1990s Santos-Dumont began to outgrow its capacity, besides diverging from its specialization on short-hop flights, offering routes to other destinations in Brazil. For this reason, in late 2004 Santos-Dumont returned to its original condition of operating only shuttle flights to and from Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, along with regional aviation. The passenger terminal has undergone extensive renovation and expansion, which increased its capacity to 9,9 million users a year. The airport is connected to the city light rail system (Rio de Janeiro Light Rail), which connects several transport systems to downtown.
- Jacarepaguá-Roberto Marinho Airport: used by general aviation and home to the Aeroclube do Brasil (Brasil Flying club). The airport is located in the district of Baixada de Jacarepaguá, within the municipality of Rio de Janeiro approximately 30 km (19 mi) from the city center.
Military airports include:
- Galeão Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase, sharing some facilities with Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport;
- Santa Cruz Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase. Formerly called Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport, it was built by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. Today it is one of the most important Air Force Bases in Brazil;
- Afonsos Air Force Base: One of the historical Brazilian Air Force airbases. It is also the location of the University of the Air Force (Universidade da Força Aérea), the Museu Aeroespacial, and where air shows take place.
The Port of Rio de Janeiro is Brazil's third busiest port in terms of cargo volume, and it is the center for cruise vessels. Located on the west coast of the Guanabara Bay, it serves the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo. The port is managed by Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro. The Port of Rio de Janeiro covers territory from the Mauá Pier in the east to the Wharf of the Cashew in the north. The Port of Rio de Janeiro contains almost seven thousand metres (23 thousand feet) of continuous wharf and an 883-metre (2,897-foot) pier. The Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro administers directly the Wharf of the Gamboa general cargo terminal; the wheat terminal with two warehouses capable of moving 300 tons of grains; General Load Terminal 2 with warehouses covering over 20 thousand square metres (215 thousand square feet); and the Wharves of Are Cristovao with terminals for wheat and liquid bulk.
At the Wharf of Gamboa, leaseholders operate terminals for sugar, paper, iron and steel products. Leaseholders at the Wharf of the Cashew operate terminals for roll-on/roll-off cargoes, containers, and liquid bulk. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over seven million tons of cargo on almost 1700 vessels. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over two million tons of containerized cargo in almost 171 thousand TEUs. The port handled 852 thousand tons of wheat, more than 1.8 million tons of iron and steel, over a million tons of liquid bulk cargo, almost 830 thousand tons of dry bulk, over five thousand tons of paper goods, and over 78 thousand vehicles. In 2003, over 91 thousand passengers moved through the Port of Rio Janeiro on 83 cruise vessels.
In Rio de Janeiro, buses are the main form of public transportation. There are nearly 440 municipal bus lines serving over four million passengers every day, in addition to intercity lines. Although cheap and frequent, Rio's transportation policy has been moving towards trains and subway in order to reduce surface congestion and increase carrier capacity. Rio's public transportation service has been a target of many critics and the motive of the 2013's protests and manifestations that started in São Paulo and spread through the entire country. According to the people, the raise in the bus and subway fares are invalid, seeing that the amount charged is too high for the low quality of the services.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Rio de Janeiro, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 95 min. 32% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 19 min, while 35% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 12.3 km, while 37% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Subway and urban trains
Rio de Janeiro has three subway lines (Metrô Rio) with 58 kilometres (36 mi) and 41 stations plus several commuter rail lines. Future plans include building a fourth subway line to Niterói and São Gonçalo, including an underwater tunnel beneath Guanabara Bay to supplement the ferry service currently there. The Metro is Rio's safest and cleanest form of public transport.
Urban train from SuperVia
Train of Rio de Janeiro Metro
The three lines serve the city seven days a week. The first line runs from General Osório in Ipanema to Uruguai Station in Tijuca. The second line runs from Botafogo, sharing ten stations with the first line, terminating at Pavuna in northern Rio. The third connects General Osório to Jardim Oceânico Station, in the Barra da Tijuca neighborhood, where the 2016 Olympic Games were held. The Metro runs services from 05:00 am to 12:00 midnight, Monday to Saturday, and from 07:00 am to 11:00 pm Sundays and public holidays. People can buy tickets for the Metro at train stations and can either buy single tickets or rechargeable cards. People can also buy tickets for the Metro at buses that make connect places far from the Metro. Integration with buses are possible in several forms, an integrated Metro and bus ticket for a single journey is available for some lines paying an additional fee and is known as an Integração Expressa (Express Integration) and Expresso Barra, the other possibility is taking the Metro na Superfície (Surface Metro) with no additional fee.
SuperVia connects the city of Rio with other locations in Greater Rio de Janeiro with surface trains. It has 8 lines and 270 kilometres (168 mi), with 102 stations.
In order to improve traffic in the central zone, the prefecture started the project "Porto Maravilha" (Marvelous Port), which foresees a modern tramway system. Its lines will connect the central business district to Santos Dumont Airport, the ferry station at XV Square, the Novo Rio terminal bus station at Santo Cristo, and the future high-speed rail Leopoldina station between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
In 2016, for the Olympic Games, the light rail system was inaugurated, with 28 km, 42 stations, distributed in 3 lines. The trams are the first in the world to use a combination of ground-level power supply (APS) and on-board supercapacitor energy storage (SRS), in order to eliminate overhead lines along the entire route.
City buses cost about R$3.80 to ride. They come in both non-air conditioned (R$3.80) and air conditioned versions (R$3–R$5.40). The system may be relatively safe by day but less so at night. Integration of bus lines has been recently implemented, allowing users to take two non-air conditioned bus rides in two hours paying just one ticket. It is necessary to have a registered electronic card (the "Bilhete Único Carioca (BUC)") in order to benefit of this system.
Another type of local bus is called the "Frescão" (air-conditioned). These buses run several routes, the main being from Centro through Botafogo, Copacabana and Ipanema to Leblon (and vice versa), and from the International Airport to Barra, through the beach road. They are air conditioned – about 22 °C (72 °F) – more upscale/comfortable and cost between R$6.00–R$12.00. However, it is only available during weekdays. The buses also run more frequently during the rush hours in the morning and evening. Going in the direction of Centro (city center), the bus can be flagged down on the beach road (buses with plaques showing "Castelo").
The most geographically close sister city to Rio that is on the other side of Guanabara Bay is Niterói. Many people who live in Niterói, as well its neighbouring municipalities São Gonçalo and Maricá, commute to Rio de Janeiro to study and work. There are several ferry services that operate between the Rio Centro (Praça XV) and Niterói (Centro and Charitas). There is a traditional boat as well as several "fast cat" hydrofoil boats. One of the city neighborhoods is Paquetá Island, which can only be accessed by ferryboats or hydrofoil boats. The ferryboat to Paquetá leaves every hour, from early in the morning until around midnight. There is also a ferry to Cocotá.
Rio de Janeiro has the oldest operating electric tramway in Brazil and South America, now mainly used by tourists and less by daily commuters. Santa Teresa Tram or bondinho, has been preserved both as a piece of history and as a quick, fun, cheap way of getting to one of the most quirky parts of the city.
Santa Teresa Tram is the oldest operating tram system in South America.
The tram station is near Cinelândia and the Municipal Theatre. Trams leave every half an hour between 6:00 am and 11:00 pm. A ticket is just Template:BRL0.60 (US$0.35), one way or return, and people pay as they pass through the barrier to the right of the entrance. The Santa Teresa Tram (known locally as the "bonde") in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro commenced electric operation in 1891, replacing horse-drawn trams and expanding the horse-drawn route. At this time the gauge was altered to 1,100 mm (43.31 in), which remains the case today. The tram cars which are currently in operation are Brazilian-built, are of the cross-bench open sided design, and are fitted with trolley poles.
After a derail occurred on 28 August 2011, which left seven dead, tram service was suspended to improve the system, and would be reopened in 2014, just before the 2014 FIFA World Cup but after postponements it was finally reopened in July 2015. While it is being improved, two lines costing Template:BRL0.60 carry passengers from Santa Teresa to Centro: SE014 and SE006.
Driving in Rio de Janeiro, as in most large cities of Brazil, might not be the best choice because of the large car fleet. The city is served by a number of expressways, like Linha Vermelha, Linha Amarela, Avenida Brasil, Avenida das Américas and Avenida Infante Dom Henrique (Aterro do Flamengo); in spite of this, traffic jams are very common. Because of the organization of the 2016 Olympics the city is installing four BRT systems to link Barra da Tijuca with other major neighbourhoods: TransOlimpica (between Barra and Deodoro); TransBrasil (over the Avenida Brasil expressway); TransCarioca (between Barra and the Galeão International Airport); and TransOeste (between Barra and Santa Cruz, over Avenida das Américas).
In Brazil, most interstate transportation is done by road. A large terminal for long-distance buses is in the Santo Cristo neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. There are also two port facilities for cargo and passenger ships (Rio de Janeiro and Sepetiba port). Rio has roads to all neighbour States. Some roads (like Via Dutra, to São Paulo, and a stretch of the BR-101 which covers the Rio-Niterói bridge) were chartered to private enterprises. The quality of the highways improved much, but was accompanied by a significant increase of the toll fees. From São Paulo: take the BR-116 (Presidente Dutra Federal Highway) or the BR-101 (Rio-Santos Federal Highway). From Belo Horizonte: BR-040. From Salvador: BR-101 or BR-324/BR-116/BR-393/BR-040.
The city has 160 km (99 mi) of cycle paths that, wherever they exist, are very much preferable to riding in the city's traffic. Most paths run alongside beaches and extend intermittently from the Marina da Glória, Centro, through Flamengo, Copacabana and Ipanema, to Barra da Tijuca and Recreio dos Bandeirantes. six kilometres (3.7 miles) of cycle paths traverse the Tijuca National Park.
The Bike Rio began operations in October 2011. This bicycle sharing system is sponsored by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú. The bike sharing system has 600 bicycles available at 60 rental stations in 14